As compared with individual tablets, saxagliptin/metformin extended-release (XR) fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets offer potential for increased patient compliance with the convenience of once-daily dosing. Two bioequivalence studies assessed the fed-state bioequivalence of saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg FDC (study 1) and saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDC (study 2) relative to the same dosage strengths of individual component tablets administered concurrently. The effect of food on saxagliptin and metformin pharmacokinetics from the saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg FDC and their steady-state pharmacokinetics from the saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg were also investigated.
These were randomized, open-label, single-dose, three-period, three-treatment, crossover studies in healthy subjects (n = 30 in each study). The treatments in study 1 were a saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg FDC tablet in the fed and fasted states on separate occasions, and saxagliptin 5 mg and metformin XR 500 mg co-administered in the fed state. The treatments in study 2 were a saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDC tablet in the fed state, saxagliptin 5 mg and 2 × metformin XR 500 mg co-administered in the fed state, and saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDC once daily for 4 days in the fed state to assess steady-state pharmacokinetics. The safety and tolerability of each treatment were also evaluated.
For both studies, saxagliptin and metformin in the FDCs were bioequivalent to the individual components as the limits of the 90% confidence interval of the ratio of adjusted geometric means for all key pharmacokinetic parameters were contained within 0.800 to 1.250. Compared with the fasted state, food did not have a meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and metformin when administered as the saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg FDC. The saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDC showed consistent pharmacokinetics at steady state without evidence of dose dumping. Co-administration of saxagliptin and metformin XR was generally safe and well tolerated as the FDCs or as individual tablets.
Saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg and saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDCs were bioequivalent to individual tablets of saxagliptin and metformin of the same strengths. Additionally, food had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin and metformin administered in the saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/500 mg FDC and the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the saxagliptin/metformin XR 5 mg/1000 mg FDC was consistent over time. No unexpected safety findings were observed with saxagliptin/metformin XR administration. The tolerability of the FDC of saxagliptin/metformin XR was comparable to that of the co-administered individual components. These results indicate that the safety and efficacy profile of co-administration of saxagliptin and metformin can be extended to the saxagliptin/metformin XR FDC tablets.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01192139 and NCT01192152.
"The PK findings in the present study were generally consistent with those reported previously [6, 8, 10]. It was confirmed that all plasma drug concentrations were at steady state when the primary endpoint was measured and that PD effects were stable from Day 3 onwards. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saxagliptin, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin are dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors widely approved for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using a crossover design, the present study compared trough levels of DPP-4 inhibition provided by these agents in a single cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes.
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label, five-period crossover study. Eligible patients were 18-65 years of age, either treatment-naïve or off prior antihyperglycemic agent therapy for at least 6 or 12 weeks (depending on the prior therapy), and had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥6.5% and ≤10.0%. In separate study periods, patients received 5 mg saxagliptin q.d. (saxa-5), 100 mg sitagliptin q.d. (sita-100), 50 mg vildagliptin q.d. (vilda-50-q.d.), 50 mg vildagliptin b.i.d. (vilda-50-b.i.d.), or placebo for 5 days. The primary endpoint was trough %DPP-4 inhibition, derived by comparing DPP-4 activity 24 h after the Day-5 morning dose with predose activity in the same period and analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model with fixed-effects terms for treatment and period.
Mean (range) baseline HbA1C was 7.4% (6.4-9.0%; N = 22). Least-squares (LS) mean trough %DPP-4 inhibition was 73.5%, 91.7%, 28.9%, 90.6%, and 3.5% after saxa-5, sita-100, vilda-50-q.d., vilda-50-b.i.d., and placebo, respectively. In patients treated with sita-100, the LS-mean difference in trough %DPP-4 inhibition was 18.2% greater than with saxa-5 (p < 0.001), 62.9% greater than with vilda-50-q.d. (p < 0.001), 1.1% greater than with vilda-50-b.i.d. (p = 0.128), and 87.8% greater than with placebo (p < 0.001). Mean %DPP-4 inhibition was nearly maximal at 12 h postdose regardless of active treatment. Thus, these between-group comparisons at trough primarily reflected differences in duration of action. Adverse events reported during the study were transient and mild or moderate in intensity.
Once daily treatment with sitagliptin provided trough DPP-4 inhibition significantly greater than saxagliptin or vildagliptin administered once daily, and similar to that provided by vildagliptin administered twice daily.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Metformin is considered as the first-line drug therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, by promoting insulin secretion and reducing glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, offer new opportunities for oral therapy after failure of metformin. AREAS COVERED: An updated review of the literature demonstrates that saxagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, and metformin may be administered together, separately or in fixed-dose combination (FDC), either as saxagliptin added to metformin or as initial combination in drug-naive patients. Both compounds exert complementary pharmacodynamic actions leading to better improvement in blood glucose control (fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose, HbA1c) than either compound separately. Adding saxagliptin to metformin monthotherapy results in a consistent, sustained and safe reduction in HbA1c levels. Tolerance is excellent without hypoglycemia or weight gain. EXPERT OPINION: The combination saxaglitpin plus metformin may be used as first-line or second-line therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes, especially as a valuable alternative to the classical metformin-sulfonylurea combination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: A metformin plus saxagliptin fixed-dose combination is now proposed to clinicians. Furthermore, saxagliptin's license was recently extended to include diabetic patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (RI). However, metformin is still contraindicated in patients with RI. AREAS COVERED: This review analyses the pro and contra of using a combination of saxagliptin and metformin (separately or as a fixed-dose combination) in type 2 diabetic patients with moderate or severe RI. An extensive literature search of all pharmacokinetic data and efficacy/safety profile of metformin and saxagliptin in subjects with RI was performed. EXPERT OPINION: Since both metformin and saxagliptin are excreted via the kidney, dose adjustment is required in case of moderate-to-severe RI (half dose of saxagliptin). However, major discrepancies exist between guidelines (metformin excluded in case of RI because of the risk of lactic acidosis) and real life (metformin widely prescribed in patients with some degree of RI). Physicians should weigh the benefit/risk ratio carefully before deciding to prescribe or withdraw the combination metformin plus saxagliptin in patients with stable RI. A redefinition of contraindications to metformin will enable more physicians to prescribe within guidelines and to administer saxagliptin combined with metformin in more patients who clearly may benefit from this combination.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 03/2012; 8(3):383-94. DOI:10.1517/17425255.2012.658771 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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