Longitudinal changes of fractional anisotropy in Alzheimer's disease patients treated with galantamine: a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study.
ABSTRACT Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrates decline of fractional anisotropy (FA) as a marker of fiber tract integrity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to assess the longitudinal course of white matter microstructural changes in AD and healthy elderly control (HC) subjects and to evaluate the effects of treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine on white matter microstructure in AD patients. We enrolled 28 AD patients and 11 healthy elderly control subjects (HC). AD patients were randomly assigned to 6-month double-blind galantamine treatment or placebo, with a 6-month open-label extension phase. DTI was performed at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12-month follow-up in AD patients. The HC subjects underwent DTI at baseline and 12-month follow-up without treatment. We measured FA in regions of interest covering the posterior cingulate and corpus callosum. At 6-month follow-up, the AD group showed significant FA decline in the left posterior cingulate. FA decline was significantly preserved in the posterior body of the corpus callosum in AD group with treatment compared to placebo. At 12-month follow-up, the AD patients showed no differences in FA decline between initial treatment and placebo groups after the 6-month open-label extension phase. A significant FA decline occurred in the left posterior cingulate across the AD and HC groups without between-group differences. DTI demonstrated FA decline in intracortically projecting fiber tracts in aging and AD over 1 year. Galantamine had limited impact on regional FA decline, which was not preserved after additional 6-month open-label treatment.
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ABSTRACT: In this article, the authors aim to present a critical review of recent MRI studies addressing white matter (WM) abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), by searching PubMed and reviewing MRI studies evaluating subjects with AD or MCI using WM volumetric methods, diffusion tensor imaging and assessment of WM hyperintensities. Studies have found that, compared with healthy controls, AD and MCI samples display WM volumetric reductions and diffusion tensor imaging findings suggestive of reduced WM integrity. These changes affect complex networks relevant to episodic memory and other cognitive processes, including fiber connections that directly link medial temporal structures and the corpus callosum. Abnormalities in cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical WM interconnections are associated with an increased risk of progression from MCI to dementia. It can be concluded that WM abnormalities are detectable in early stages of AD and MCI. Degeneration of WM networks causes disconnection among neural cells and the degree of such changes is related to cognitive decline.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 05/2013; 13(5):483-93. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructural alterations of white matter (WM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with apathy and to observe the relationships with the severity of apathy. Sixty drug-naïve subjects took part in this study (30 apathetic and 30 nonapathetic subjects with AD). The loss of integrity in WM was compared in AD patients with and without apathy through measurement of fractional anisotropy (FA) using by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In addition, we explored the correlation pattern between FA values and the severity of apathy in AD patients with apathy. The apathy group had significantly reduced FA values (p(corrected)<0.05) in the genu of the corpus callosum compared to the nonapathy group. The severity of apathy was negatively correlated with FA values of the left anterior and posterior cingulum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, splenium, body and genu of the corpus callosum and bilateral uncinate fasciculusin the apathy group (p(corrected)<0.05). This study was the first to explore FA values in whole brain WM in AD patients with apathy. The findings of these microstructural alterations of WM may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanism and clinical significances of apathy in AD.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53493. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 04/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor