Dynamic Changes of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiopoietin-1 in Association With Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) can promote angiogenesis and vascular stability after brain injury. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) also play a crucial role in neovascularization and tissue repair after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to compare the expression of VEGF and Ang-1 in serum and the circulating EPCs in patients after severe TBI with that of healthy control subjects.
We obtained peripheral blood and serum samples from 21 patients with severe TBI and 11 healthy control subjects. EPCs in blood samples from severe TBI patients and healthy controls were quantified by flow cytometry 1 day, 4 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days after severe TBI. VEGF and Ang-1 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay at the same time points.
Compared with control subjects, circulating EPCs in patients with severe TBI decreased 4 days (p < 0.05), but increased 7 days and 14 days (p < 0.05) after TBI. VEGF increased significantly during the follow-up period (p < 0.05). Ang-1 increased gradually and reached peak at 7 days and 14 days after TBI. The circulating EPCs were significantly correlated with VEGF and Ang-1 at 7 days and 14 days after severe TBI.
Our results suggest that the increased VEGF and Ang-1 are closely related to increase in circulating EPCs in response to severe TBI, which may be needed for vascular repairs after severe TBI.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin/collagen XVIII might play an important role in the secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we measured endostatin/collagen XVIII concentrations serially for 1 week after hospitalization by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients with TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less on admission. There was a significant trend toward increased CSF levels of endostatin after TBI versus control from 72 h after injury. In patients with GCS score of 3–5, CSF endostatin concentration was substantially higher at 72 h after injury than that in patients with GCS score of 6–8 (P < 0.05) and peaked rapidly at day 5 after injury, but decreased thereafter. The CSF endostatin concentration in 12 patients with an unfavorable outcome was significantly higher than that in 18 patients with a favorable outcome at day 5 (P = 0.043) and day 7 (P = 0.005) after trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested a reliable operating point for the 7-day CSF endostatin concentration predicting poor prognosis to be 67.29 pg/mL. Our preliminary findings provide new evidence that endostatin/collagen XVIII concentration in the CSF increases substantially in patients with sTBI. Its dynamic change may have some clinical significance on the judgment of brain injury severity and the assessment of prognosis. This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01846546.09/2013; 2013:402375. DOI:10.1155/2013/402375