Vitamin D inhibits proliferation and profibrotic marker expression in hepatic stellate cells and decreases thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
ABSTRACT Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are key participants in liver fibrosis development. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), the active form of vitamin D, has antiproliferative properties and antifibrotic potential, as well as a role in extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulation in renal and lung fibrosis. Little is known about the role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in liver and its involvement in liver fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in primary cultured HSCs and in a rat model of liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA).
Primary HSCs were isolated from rats' livers and treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Proliferation was examined by bromodeoxyuridine. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and several fibrotic markers were detected by western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Collagen Iα1 and MMP-9 promoter activity were measured by luciferase assay. MMP-9 enzymatic activity was investigated by zymography. VDR silencing was performed by sh-RNA. An in vivo study was performed on TAA-induced liver fibrosis model in rats treated with or without 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The fibrotic score and collagen deposition were determined by Masson and by Sirius red staining.
While VDR was highly expressed in quiescent HSCs, its expression decreased up to 40% during activation. Addition of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to activated HSCs stimulated VDR expression. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) suppressed HSC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression by ~50% and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) by 60% and led to a 40% downregulation of collagen Iα1 expression. Moreover, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased MMP-9 activity by 30%. Silencing VDR by sh-RNA demonstrated that suppression of cyclin D1 and collagen Iα1 protein expression was VDR dependent. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) significantly reduced extracellular matrix deposition and lowered the fibrotic score in TAA-induced liver fibrosis.
1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has antiproliferative and antifibrotic effects on liver fibrosis in in vitro and in vivo models and may be considered as having potential therapeutic value.
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ABSTRACT: The hormonal metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D), initiates biological responses via binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). When occupied by 1,25D, VDR interacts with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to form a heterodimer that binds to vitamin D responsive elements in the region of genes directly controlled by 1,25D. By recruiting complexes of either coactivators or corepressors, ligand-activated VDR-RXR modulates the transcription of genes encoding proteins that promulgate the traditional functions of vitamin D, including signaling intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption to effect skeletal and calcium homeostasis. Thus, vitamin D action in a particular cell depends upon the metabolic production or delivery of sufficient concentrations of the 1,25D ligand, expression of adequate VDR and RXR coreceptor proteins, and cell-specific programming of transcriptional responses to regulate select genes that encode proteins that function in mediating the effects of vitamin D. For example, 1,25D induces RANKL, SPP1 (osteopontin), and BGP (osteocalcin) to govern bone mineral remodeling; TRPV6, CaBP(9k), and claudin 2 to promote intestinal calcium absorption; and TRPV5, klotho, and Npt2c to regulate renal calcium and phosphate reabsorption. VDR appears to function unliganded by 1,25D in keratinocytes to drive mammalian hair cycling via regulation of genes such as CASP14, S100A8, SOSTDC1, and others affecting Wnt signaling. Finally, alternative, low-affinity, non-vitamin D VDR ligands, e.g., lithocholic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and curcumin, have been reported. Combined alternative VDR ligand(s) and 1,25D/VDR control of gene expression may delay chronic disorders of aging such as osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.Calcified Tissue International 07/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor
Article: Vitamin D and the racial difference in the genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treatment response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: African Americans with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C attain a sustained virologic response (SVR) at only approximately one-half the rate of whites after peginterferon and ribavirin treatment. The serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has recently been established as a predictor of treatment response. Therefore, the low serum concentrations of 25(OH)D found among African Americans may contribute to the low response rate; however, to our knowledge, none of the studies of vitamin D in chronic hepatitis C treatment have included a significant number of black patients. The objective was to compare the relation between the 25(OH)D concentration and genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treatment response in African Americans with that in whites. This cross-sectional analysis included 106 African American and 65 white patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the SVR rate in the white patients increased significantly with an increasing serum concentration of 25(OH)D [SVR rates were 20%, 46%, and 70% for 25(OH)D serum concentrations <20, 20-35, and >35 ng/mL, respectively; P-trend = 0.008]; however, there was no relation between the SVR rate and 25(OH)D serum concentration in the African American patients [SVR rates were 32%, 28%, and 33% for 25(OH)D serum concentrations <20, 20-35, and >35 ng/mL, respectively; P-trend = 0.832]. We also found an analogous racial difference in the relation between the extent of liver fibrosis and the 25(OH)D concentration. Racial differences in vitamin D physiology or race-specific factors that modify the effects of vitamin D may affect the immune response to genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2012; 96(5):1025-31. · 6.67 Impact Factor