GPIHBP1 C89F neomutation and hydrophobic C-terminal domain G175R mutation in two pedigrees with severe hyperchylomicronemia.

Hôpital Louis Pradel, Fédération d'Endocrinologie, Bron Cedex, France.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.5). 08/2011; 96(10):E1675-9. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-1444
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT GPIHBP1 is a new endothelial binding site for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the key enzyme for intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL). We have identified two new missense mutations of the GPIHBP1 gene, C89F and G175R, by systematic sequencing in a cohort of 376 hyperchylomicronemic patients without mutations on the LPL, APOC2, or APOA5 gene.
Phenotypic expression and functional consequences of these two mutations were studied.
We performed clinical and genotypic studies of probands and their families. GPIHBP1 functional alterations were studied in CHO pgsA-745 transfected cells.
Probands are an adult with a homozygous G175R mutation and a child with a hemizygous C89F neomutation and a deletion of the second allele. C89F mutation was associated with a C14F signal peptide polymorphism on the same haplotype. Both patients had resistant hyperchylomicronemia, low LPL activity, and history of acute pancreatitis. In CHO pgsA-745 cells, both G175R and C14F variants reduce the expression of GPIHBP1 at the cell surface. C89F mutation is responsible for a drastic LPL-binding defect to GPIHBP1. C14F may further potentiate C89F effect.
The emergence of hyperchylomicronemia in the generation after a neomutation further establishes a critical role for GPIHBP1 in TGRL physiopathology in humans. Our results highlight the crucial role of C65-C89 disulfide bond in LPL binding by GPIHBP1 Ly6 domain. Furthermore, we first report a mutation of the hydrophobic C-terminal domain that impairs GPIHBP1 membrane targeting.

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    ABSTRACT: GPIHBP1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein of microvascular endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial spaces and transports it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1's ability to bind LPL depends on its Ly6 domain, a three-fingered structure containing 10 cysteines and a conserved pattern of disulfide bond formation. Here, we report a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia who was homozygous for a GPIHBP1 point mutation that converted a serine in GPIHBP1's Ly6 domain (Ser-107) to a cysteine. Two hypertriglyceridemic siblings were homozygous for the same mutation. All three homozygotes had very low levels of LPL in the pre-heparin plasma. We suspected that the extra cysteine in GPIHBP1-S107C might prevent the trafficking of the protein to the cell surface, but this was not the case. However, nearly all of the GPIHBP1-S107C on the cell surface was in the form of disulfide-linked dimers and multimers, while wild-type GPIHBP1 was predominantly monomeric. An insect cell GPIHBP1 expression system confirmed the propensity of GPIHBP1-S107C to form disulfide-linked dimers and to form multimers. Functional studies showed that only GPIHBP1 monomers bind LPL. In keeping with that finding, there was no binding of LPL to GPIHBP1-S107C in either cell-based or cell-free binding assays. We conclude that an extra cysteine in GPIHBP1's Ly6 motif results in multimerization of GPIHBP1, defective LPL binding, and severe hypertriglyceridemia.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Familial chylomicronemia (type I hyperlipidemia) is a rare autosomal recessive disease due mainly to rare variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene sequence. Molecular diagnosis of LPL deficiency is now a requirement for the first gene therapy treatment approved in the European Union. Altered coding sequence variants in APOC2, APOA5 or GPIHBP-1 can also cause familial chylomicronemia. Herein, we report the results of our molecular diagnostic activity in this topic, carried out in the setting of a Spanish clinical practice hospital laboratory, which was also extended to some patients who were more likely to have type V hyperlipidemia. Samples from twenty-nine unrelated probands with severe hypertriglyceridemia were referred for molecular diagnosis. Samples were first screened for LPL sequence variants by DNA sequencing and, in the absence of alterations, subsequent analysis of APOC2, APOA5, and GPIHBP1 genes was undertaken. Analysis of LPL function in vitro was further studied in two previously uncharacterized LPL sequence variants. Fourteen different, loss-of-function variants were found in the LPL gene: 4 were novel or uncharacterized allelic variants, and of these, 2 were directly shown to affect function. Twenty of 29 probands presented at least one LPL gene allele variant: 8 were homozygous, 9 compound heterozygous and 3 heterozygous. In 13 probands, the finding of two loss-of-function variants supported the diagnosis of LPL deficiency. None of the probands presented sequence variants in the APOC2 gene, whereas 3 presented rare variants within the APOA5 gene. Four of the five patients heterozygous for a common variant in the GPIHBP-1 gene also carried APOA5 sequence variants. Loss-of-function LPL variants leading to familial chylomicronemia were found in 13 patients, accounting for a significant proportion of the LPL-deficient patients predicted to live in Spain.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determination of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is important for hyperchylomicronemia diagnosis, but remains both unreliable and cumbersome with current methods. Consequently by using human VLDL as substrate we developed a new LPL assay which does not require sonication, radioactive or fluorescent particles. Post-heparin plasma was added to the VLDL substrate prepared by ultracentrifugation of heat inactivated normolipidemic human serums, diluted in buffer, pH 8.15. Following incubation at 37°c, the NEFA (non esterified fatty acids) produced were assayed hourly for 4 hours. LPL activity was expressed as µmol/l/min after subtraction of hepatic lipase (HL) activity, obtained following LPL inhibition with NaCl 1.5 mmol/l. Molecular analysis of LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, APOE genes was available for 62 patients. Our method was reproducible (coefficient of variation (CV): intra-assay 5.6%, inter-assay 7.1%), and tightly correlated with the conventional radiolabelled triolein emulsion method (n = 26, r = 0.88). Normal values were established at 34.8±12.8 µmol/l/min (mean±SD) from 20 control subjects. LPL activities obtained from 71 patients with documented history of major hypertriglyceridemia showed a trimodal distribution. Among the 11 patients with a very low LPL activity (<10 µmol/l/min), 5 were homozygous or compound heterozygous for LPL or GPIHBP1 deleterious mutations, 3 were compound heterozygous for APOA5 deleterious mutations and the p.S19W APOA5 susceptibility variant, and 2 were free of any mutations in the usual candidate genes. No homozygous gene alteration in LPL, GPIHBP1 and APOC2 genes was found in any of the patients with LPL activity >10 µmol/l/min. This new reproducible method is a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and reliably identifies LPL activity defects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96482. · 3.73 Impact Factor


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