Factors affecting psychiatric inpatient hospitalization from a psychiatric emergency service.
ABSTRACT As a gateway to the mental health system, psychiatric emergency services (PES) are charged with assessing a heterogeneous array of short-term and long-term psychiatric crises. However, few studies have examined factors associated with inpatient psychiatric hospitalization following PES in a racially diverse sample. We examine the demographic, service use and clinical factors associated with inpatient hospitalization and differences in predisposing factors by race and ethnicity.
Three months of consecutive admissions to San Francisco's only 24-h PES (N = 1,305) were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between demographic, service use, and clinical factors and inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. We then estimated separate models for Asians, Blacks, Latinos and Whites.
Clinical severity was a consistent predictor of hospitalization. However, age, gender, race/ethnicity, homelessness and employment status were all significant related to hospitalization. Alcohol and drug use were associated with lower probability of inpatient admission, however specific substances appear particularly salient for different racial/ethnic groups.
While clinical characteristics played an essential role in disposition decisions, these results point to the importance of factors external to PES. Individual and community factors that affect use of psychiatric emergency services merit additional focused attention.
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ABSTRACT: The study sought to explore the characteristics, risk factors for inpatient recommendation, and risk factors for revisits to a pediatric psychiatric intake response center (PIRC). There are three research questions: 1. What is the general profile of pediatric patients who present at the PIRC? 2. What are the risk factors for patients who repeatedly visit the PIRC? 3. What are the risk factors for PIRC patients who are recommended to inpatient care?Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 01/2014; 8(1):27.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines general hospitals' adjustments in psychiatric bed utilization practices in response to increases in psychiatric inpatient admissions. Using panel data from 439 hospitals, monthly observations (N = 7,831) between 2007 and 2010 on psychiatric admissions, psychiatric bed occupancy rates, and average length-of-stay were created for psychiatric inpatients. In fixed-effects regressions, an increase in psychiatric admissions was associated with an increase in the probability of psychiatric bed use exceeding 100 % occupancy and with a reduction of mean length-of-stay. These results were confirmed in instrumental variables models. General hospitals may dynamically adjust bed utilization practices in response to changing psychiatric bed needs. An implication of this dynamic adjustment model is that bed shortages are likely to be local, transitory events.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 04/2014; 42(2). · 3.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The prevalence of depression in older adults has been increasing over the last 20 years and is associated with economic costs in the form of treatment utilization and caregiving, including inpatient hospitalization. Comorbid alcohol diagnoses may serve as a complicating factor in inpatient admissions and may lead to overutilization of care and greater economic cost. This study sought to isolate the comorbidity effect of alcohol among older adult hospital admissions for depression. Methods: We analyzed a subsample (N = 8,480) of older adults (65+) from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample who were hospitalized with primary depression diagnoses, 7,741 of whom had depression only and 739 of whom also had a comorbid alcohol disorder. To address potential selection bias based on drinking and health status, propensity score matching was used to compare length of stay, total costs, and disposition between the two groups. Results: Bivariate analyses showed that older persons with depression and alcohol comorbidities were more often male (59.9% versus 34.0%, p < .001) and younger (70.9 versus 75.9 years, p < .001) than those with depression only. In terms of medical comorbidities, those with depression and alcohol disorders experienced more medical issues related to substance use (e.g., drug use diagnoses, liver disease, and suicidality; all p < .001), while those with depression only experienced more general medical problems (e.g., diabetes, renal failure, hypothyroid, and dementia; all p < .001). Propensity score matched models found that alcohol comorbidity was associated with shorter lengths of stay (on average 1.08 days, p < .02) and lower likelihood of post-hospitalization placement in a nursing home or other care facility (OR = 0.64, p < .001). No significant differences were found in overall costs or likelihood of discharge to a psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: In older adults, depression with alcohol comorbidity does not lead to increased costs or higher levels of care after discharge. Comorbidity may lead to inpatient hospitalization at lower levels of severity, and depression with alcohol comorbidity may be qualitatively different than non-comorbid depression. Additionally, increased costs and negative outcomes in this population may occur at other levels of care such as outpatient services or emergency department visits. (Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11:83–92, 2015)Journal of Dual Diagnosis 02/2015; 11(1):83-92. · 0.80 Impact Factor