Factors affecting psychiatric inpatient hospitalization from a psychiatric emergency service
ABSTRACT As a gateway to the mental health system, psychiatric emergency services (PES) are charged with assessing a heterogeneous array of short-term and long-term psychiatric crises. However, few studies have examined factors associated with inpatient psychiatric hospitalization following PES in a racially diverse sample. We examine the demographic, service use and clinical factors associated with inpatient hospitalization and differences in predisposing factors by race and ethnicity.
Three months of consecutive admissions to San Francisco's only 24-h PES (N = 1,305) were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between demographic, service use, and clinical factors and inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. We then estimated separate models for Asians, Blacks, Latinos and Whites.
Clinical severity was a consistent predictor of hospitalization. However, age, gender, race/ethnicity, homelessness and employment status were all significant related to hospitalization. Alcohol and drug use were associated with lower probability of inpatient admission, however specific substances appear particularly salient for different racial/ethnic groups.
While clinical characteristics played an essential role in disposition decisions, these results point to the importance of factors external to PES. Individual and community factors that affect use of psychiatric emergency services merit additional focused attention.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The prevalence of depression in older adults has been increasing over the last 20 years and is associated with economic costs in the form of treatment utilization and caregiving, including inpatient hospitalization. Comorbid alcohol diagnoses may serve as a complicating factor in inpatient admissions and may lead to overutilization of care and greater economic cost. This study sought to isolate the comorbidity effect of alcohol among older adult hospital admissions for depression. Methods: We analyzed a subsample (N = 8,480) of older adults (65+) from the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample who were hospitalized with primary depression diagnoses, 7,741 of whom had depression only and 739 of whom also had a comorbid alcohol disorder. To address potential selection bias based on drinking and health status, propensity score matching was used to compare length of stay, total costs, and disposition between the two groups. Results: Bivariate analyses showed that older persons with depression and alcohol comorbidities were more often male (59.9% versus 34.0%, p < .001) and younger (70.9 versus 75.9 years, p < .001) than those with depression only. In terms of medical comorbidities, those with depression and alcohol disorders experienced more medical issues related to substance use (e.g., drug use diagnoses, liver disease, and suicidality; all p < .001), while those with depression only experienced more general medical problems (e.g., diabetes, renal failure, hypothyroid, and dementia; all p < .001). Propensity score matched models found that alcohol comorbidity was associated with shorter lengths of stay (on average 1.08 days, p < .02) and lower likelihood of post-hospitalization placement in a nursing home or other care facility (OR = 0.64, p < .001). No significant differences were found in overall costs or likelihood of discharge to a psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: In older adults, depression with alcohol comorbidity does not lead to increased costs or higher levels of care after discharge. Comorbidity may lead to inpatient hospitalization at lower levels of severity, and depression with alcohol comorbidity may be qualitatively different than non-comorbid depression. Additionally, increased costs and negative outcomes in this population may occur at other levels of care such as outpatient services or emergency department visits. (Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 11:83–92, 2015)Journal of Dual Diagnosis 02/2015; 11(1):83-92. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research over the last decade has been promising in terms of the incremental utility of psychometric tools in predicting important clinical outcomes, such as mental health service utilization and inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new Level of Care Index (LOCI) from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Logistic regression was initially used in a development sample (n = 253) of psychiatric patients to identify unique PAI indicators associated with inpatient (n = 75) as opposed to outpatient (n = 178) status. Five PAI variables were ultimately retained (Suicidal Ideation, Antisocial Personality-Stimulus Seeking, Paranoia-Persecution, Negative Impression Management, and Depression-Affective) and were then aggregated into a single LOCI and independently evaluated in a second validation sample (n = 252). Results indicated the LOCI effectively differentiated inpatients from outpatients after controlling for demographic variables and was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing risk factors for psychiatric admission (range of ds = 0.46 for history of arrests to 0.88 for history of suicidal ideation). The LOCI was additionally found to be meaningfully associated with measures of normal personality, performance-based tests of psychological functioning, and measures of neurocognitive (executive) functioning. The clinical implications of these findings and potential utility of the LOCI are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).Psychological Assessment 03/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1037/a0032085 · 2.99 Impact Factor
- General hospital psychiatry 09/2011; 33(6):535-6. DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.08.009 · 2.90 Impact Factor