Clinical syndromes, personality disorders, and neurocognitive differences in male and female inmates.
ABSTRACT This study examined clinical syndromes, personality disorders, and neurocognitive problems in adult male (n = 523) and female inmates (n = 523) and a sample of unincarcerated adult women (n = 523). Inmates were administered the Coolidge Correctional Inventory (CCI), and the unincarcerated sample was given an identical test, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. Although there were significant differences between the two inmate groups on a majority of the 32 CCI scales, only two scales achieved a medium effect size. The two inmate groups were found to be highly similar in a comparison of ranked personality disorder prevalence rates. Consistent with previous literature, male inmates had a significantly higher prevalence of antisocial personality disorder than female inmates (24% vs. 18%). Female inmates had double the prevalence of male inmates on the borderline and histrionic personality disorder scales. Female inmates also reported significantly more general neuropsychological dysfunction, specifically memory problems and neurosomatic symptoms, than male inmates. Female inmates also reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, symptoms of schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depersonalization than male inmates. Overall, the findings support previous research of high levels of psychological and neuropsychological problems in inmates, regardless of gender, and reinforces the need for comprehensive mental health screening of offender populations.
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ABSTRACT: There are few published studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult inmates, and even fewer studies that have considered ADHD in adult inmates by gender. The present study examined the prevalence of ADHD, its subtypes, and associated psychological and neuropsychological comorbidity as a function of gender in a sample of 3,962 inmates (3,439 men and 523 women; mean age = 33.6 years, range 17-73) who had completed the 250-item, self-report, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR)-aligned Coolidge Correctional Inventory (CCI). The overall ADHD prevalence rate found was 10.5%, which is substantially higher than the rate among adults in the general population (2-5%). The female inmate ADHD prevalence rate (15.1%) was higher than the male inmate ADHD rate (9.8%), consistent with some previous studies. The most prevalent ADHD subtype for both genders was the hyperactive-impulsive subtype. The combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes had higher levels of comorbid psychopathology than the hyperactive-impulsive ADHD subtype. As the presence of ADHD and associated gender differentials may impact the success of rehabilitation and educative programs with inmates, the assessment of ADHD and comorbid psychopathology should be a priority in initial inmate screening and evaluation.Behavioral Sciences & the Law 04/2012; 30(2):154-66. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although several lines of evidences suggest that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, this association remains controversial. Here, we aim to investigate the genetic association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and schizophrenia and to explore whether this polymorphism could influence the severity of clinical symptoms in schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was carried out in 456 schizophrenic patients and 483 controls using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method. The patients' psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The general clinical data of schizophrenic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the genotype distribution and allelic frequencies of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism between the schizophrenia group and the controls. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism explained ∼16% of the variance in anxiety/depression symptoms in schizophrenic patients. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may be involved in the etiology of schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. Furthermore, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is a significant factor influencing the severity of anxiety/depression symptoms in schizophrenic patients.Psychiatric genetics 03/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor