Effects of brain amyloid deposition and reduced glucose metabolism on the default mode of brain function in normal aging.
ABSTRACT Brain β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition during normal aging is highlighted as an initial pathogenetic event in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many recent brain imaging studies have focused on areas deactivated during cognitive tasks [the default mode network (DMN), i.e., medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex], where the strength of functional coordination was more or less affected by cerebral Aβ deposits. In the present positron emission tomography study, to investigate whether regional glucose metabolic alterations and Aβ deposits seen in nondemented elderly human subjects (n = 22) are of pathophysiological importance in changes of brain hemodynamic coordination in DMN during normal aging, we measured cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]FDG, Aβ deposits with [(11)C]PIB, and regional cerebral blood flow during control and working memory tasks by H(2)(15)O on the same day. Data were analyzed using both region of interest and statistical parametric mapping. Our results indicated that the amount of Aβ deposits was negatively correlated with hemodynamic similarity between medial frontal and medial posterior regions, and the lower similarity was associated with poorer working memory performance. In contrast, brain glucose metabolism was not related to this medial hemodynamic similarity. These findings suggest that traceable Aβ deposition, but not glucose hypometabolism, in the brain plays an important role in occurrence of neuronal discoordination in DMN along with poor working memory in healthy elderly people.
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive processing generally deteriorates as people age. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in human-specific behavior, such as preparing for future actions and prospective memory; hence, the PFC may be voluntarily activated even during the "resting" condition that precedes task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in voluntary pre-task activation as a result of aging using a paradigm that includes a longer intertrial interval (e.g., 30 sec) than has been used in previous studies.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98779. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype α4β2 is considered important in the regulation of attention and memory, and cholinergic degeneration is known as one pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Brain amyloid-β protein deposition is also a key pathological marker of Alzheimer's disease. Recent amyloid-β imaging has shown many cognitively normal subjects with amyloid-β deposits, indicating a missing link between amyloid-β deposition and cognitive decline. To date, the relationship between the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and amyloid-β burden has not been elucidated in vivo. In this study we investigated the relation between α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in the brain, cognitive functions and amyloid-β burden in 20 non-smoking patients with Alzheimer's disease at an early stage and 25 age-matched non-smoking healthy elderly adults by measuring levels of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding estimated from a simplified ratio method (BPRI) and Logan plot-based amyloid-β accumulation (BPND) using positron emission tomography with α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor tracer (18)F-2FA-85380 and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B. The levels of tracer binding were compared with clinical measures for various brain functions (general cognition, episodic and spatial memory, execution, judgement, emotion) using regions of interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses. Between-group statistical parametric mapping analysis showed a significant reduction in (18)F-2FA-85380 BPRI in the cholinergic projection region in patients with Alzheimer's disease with a variety of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B accumulation. Spearman rank correlation analyses showed positive correlations of (18)F-2FA-85380 BPRI values in the medial frontal cortex and nucleus basalis magnocellularis region with scores of the Frontal Assessment Battery (a test battery for executive functions and judgement) in the Alzheimer's disease group (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparison), and also positive correlations of the prefrontal and superior parietal (18)F-2FA-85380 BPRI values with the Frontal Assessment Battery score in the normal group (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparison). These positive correlations indicated an in vivo α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor role in those specific functions that may be different from memory. Both region of interest-based and voxelwise regression analyses showed a negative correlation between frontal (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B BPND and (18)F-2FA-85380 BPRI values in the medial frontal cortex and nucleus basalis magnocellularis region in patients with Alzheimer's disease (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparison). These findings suggest that an impairment of the cholinergic α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor system with the greater amount of amyloid deposition in the system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease.Brain 08/2013; · 10.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension in older adults, and the deleterious effect of these conditions on cerebrovascular and brain health, is creating a growing discrepancy between the "typical" cognitive aging trajectory and a "healthy" cognitive aging trajectory. These changing health demographics make T2DM and hypertension important topics of study in their own right, and warrant attention from the perspective of cognitive aging neuroimaging research. Specifically, interpretation of individual or group differences in blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET H2O(15)) signals as reflective of differences in neural activation underlying a cognitive operation of interest requires assumptions of intact vascular health amongst the study participants. Without adequate screening, inclusion of individuals with T2DM or hypertension in "healthy" samples may introduce unwanted variability and bias to brain and/or cognitive measures, and increase potential for error. We conducted a systematic review of the cognitive aging neuroimaging literature to document the extent to which researchers account for these conditions. Of the 232 studies selected for review, few explicitly excluded individuals with T2DM (9%) or hypertension (13%). A large portion had exclusion criteria that made it difficult to determine whether T2DM or hypertension were excluded (44 and 37%), and many did not mention any selection criteria related to T2DM or hypertension (34 and 22%). Of all the surveyed studies, only 29% acknowledged or addressed the potential influence of intersubject vascular variability on the measured BOLD or PET signals. To reinforce the notion that individuals with T2DM and hypertension should not be overlooked as a potential source of bias, we also provide an overview of metabolic and vascular changes associated with T2DM and hypertension, as they relate to cerebrovascular and brain health.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 07/2014; 6(148). · 2.84 Impact Factor