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Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

Food Technology Program, School of Agro-Industry, Mae Fah Luang University, Muang, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.
Food Science and Technology International (Impact Factor: 0.91). 08/2011; 17(4):395-402. DOI: 10.1177/1082013210387817
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

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    ABSTRACT: Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peel (Nang Lae cultv.) using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) was optimized. Some biochemical properties including collagen hydrolysis were also investigated. Bromelain predominantly partitioned to the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich phase. The highest enzyme activity recovery (113.54%) and purification fold (2.23) were presented in the top phase of 15% PEG2000–14% MgSO4. Protein pattern and activity staining showed the molecular weight (MW) of bromelain to be about 29 kDa. The extracted bromelain showed the highest relative activity at pH 7.0 and 55 °C. Its activity was decreased continuously by increasing NaCl concentration (up to 1.5% (w/v)). The bromelain extract was applied to hydrolyze the skin collagen of beef and giant catfish (0–0.3 units). The β, α1, α2 of giant catfish skin collagen extensively degraded into small peptides when treated with 0.02 units of the bromelain extract. Bovine collagen was hydrolyzed using higher bromelain up to 0.18 units. This study showed the ATPS can be employed to partially purify bromelain from Nang Lae pineapple peel and the enzyme effectively hydrolyzed the collagens.
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