Article

Relation of Parkinson's Disease Subtypes to Visual Activities of Daily Living

Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA02215, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 3.01). 08/2011; 17(5):841-52. DOI: 10.1017/S1355617711000853
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Visual perceptual problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often affect activities of daily living (ADLs). PD patients with non-tremor symptoms at disease onset (i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance or postural instability) have more diffuse neurobiological abnormalities and report worse non-motor symptoms and functional changes than patients whose initial symptom is tremor, but the relation of motor symptom subtype to perceptual deficits remains unstudied. We assessed visual ADLs with the Visual Activities Questionnaire in 25 non-demented patients with PD, 13 with tremor as the initial symptom and 12 with an initial symptom other than tremor, as well as in 23 healthy control participants (NC). As expected, the non-tremor patients, but not the tremor patients, reported more impairment in visual ADLs than the NC group, including in light/dark adaptation, acuity/spatial vision, depth perception, peripheral vision and visual processing speed. Non-tremor patients were significantly worse than tremor patients overall and on light/dark adaptation and depth perception. Environmental enhancements especially targeted to patients with the non-tremor PD subtype may help to ameliorate their functional disability.

0 Followers
 · 
193 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) with symptom onset on the left side of the body (LPD) show mild type of left-sided visuospatial neglect, whereas those with right-onset (RPD) generally do not. The functional mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Two hypotheses are that the representation of left-space in LPD is either compressed or reduced in salience. We tested these hypotheses psychophysically. Participants were 31 non-demented adults with PD (15 LPD, 16 RPD) and 17 normal control adults (NC). The spatial compression hypothesis was tested by showing two sinusoidal gratings, side by side. One grating's spatial frequency (SF) was varied across trials, following a staircase procedure, whereas the comparison grating was held at a constant SF. While fixating on a central target, participants estimated the point at which they perceived the two gratings to be equal in SF. The reduced salience hypothesis was tested in a similar way, but by manipulating the contrast of the test grating rather than its SF. There were no significant differences between groups in the degree of bias across hemifields for SF discrimination or for contrast discrimination. Results did not support either the spatial compression hypothesis or the reduced salience hypothesis. Instead, they suggest that at this perceptual level, LPD do not have a systematically biased way of representing space in the left hemifield that differs from healthy individuals, nor do they perceive stimuli on the left as less salient than stimuli on the right. Neglect-like syndrome in LPD instead presumably arises from dysfunction of higher-order attention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vision Research 12/2014; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2014.12.003 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to deficits in executive function, including verbal and nonverbal fluency, as a result of compromised frontostriatal circuits. It is unknown whether deficits in verbal and nonverbal fluency in PD are driven by certain subgroups of patients, or how strategy use may facilitate performance. Participants. Sixty-five nondemented individuals with PD, including 36 with right-body onset (RPD; 20 with tremor as their initial symptom, 16 nontremor) and 29 with left-body onset (LPD; 14 with tremor as their initial symptom, 15 nontremor), and 52 normal control participants (NC) took part in the study. Measurements. Verbal fluency was assessed using the FAS and Animals tests. Nonverbal fluency was assessed using the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Results. Both RPD and LPD were impaired in generating words and in using clustering and switching strategies on phonemic verbal fluency, whereas different patterns of impairment were found on nonverbal fluency depending on the interaction of side of onset and initial motor symptom (tremor vs. nontremor). Strategy use correlated with number of correct responses on verbal fluency in LPD, RPD, and NC. By contrast, on nonverbal fluency, strategy use correlated with correct responses for RPD and LPD, but not for NC. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering subgroups in PD and analyzing subcomponents of verbal and nonverbal fluency (correct responses, errors, and strategies), which may depend differently on the integrity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2014; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.889089 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder, associated with rigidity, bradykinesia, and resting tremor, among other motor symptoms. In addition, patients with PD also show cognitive and psychiatric dysfunction, including dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), depression, hallucinations, among others. Interestingly, the occurrence of these symptoms-motor, cognitive, and psychiatric-vary among individuals, such that a subgroup of PD patients might show some of the symptoms, but another subgroup does not. This has prompted neurologists and scientists to subtype PD patients depending on the severity of symptoms they show. Neural studies have also mapped different motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms in PD to different brain networks. In this review, we discuss the neural and behavioral substrates of most common subtypes of PD patients, that are related to the occurrence of: (a) resting tremor (vs. nontremor-dominant); (b) MCI; (c) dementia; (d) impulse control disorders (ICD); (e) depression; and/or (f) hallucinations. We end by discussing the relationship among subtypes of PD subgroups, and the relationship among motor, cognitive, psychiatric factors in PD.
    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 12/2013; 7:117. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2013.00117