Whole-genome expression analysis in primary human keratinocyte cell cultures exposed to 60 GHz radiation.
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to investigate potential responses of skin cells to millimeter wave (MMW) radiation increasingly used in the wireless technologies. Primary human skin cells were exposed for 1, 6, or 24 h to 60.4 GHz with an average incident power density of 1.8 mW/cm(2) and an average specific absorption rate of 42.4 W/kg. A large-scale analysis was performed to determine whether these exposures could affect the gene expression. Gene expression microarrays containing over 41,000 unique human transcript probe sets were used, and data obtained for sham and exposed cells were compared. No significant difference in gene expression was observed when gene expression values were subjected to a stringent statistical analysis such as the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. However, when a t-test was employed to analyze microarray data, 130 transcripts were found to be potentially modulated after exposure. To further quantitatively analyze these preselected transcripts, real-time PCR was performed on 24 genes with the best combination of high fold change and low P-value. Five of them, namely CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: An effective solution for increasing the exposure uniformity and efficiency of biological samples in in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments at 60 GHz is proposed by introducing a novel choke ring antenna (CRA). The CRA is optimized to provide a uniform exposure of samples, whose dimensions are equivalent to those of a standard 35-mm Petri dish, positioned close to the antenna aperture, i.e. 10 to 20 wavelengths. The antenna prototype is fabricated in metallized foam. The realized exposure efficiency of the sample exceeds 55% ...IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 05/2013; 61(5). · 2.23 Impact Factor