Whole-genome expression analysis in primary human keratinocyte cell cultures exposed to 60 GHz radiation.
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to investigate potential responses of skin cells to millimeter wave (MMW) radiation increasingly used in the wireless technologies. Primary human skin cells were exposed for 1, 6, or 24 h to 60.4 GHz with an average incident power density of 1.8 mW/cm(2) and an average specific absorption rate of 42.4 W/kg. A large-scale analysis was performed to determine whether these exposures could affect the gene expression. Gene expression microarrays containing over 41,000 unique human transcript probe sets were used, and data obtained for sham and exposed cells were compared. No significant difference in gene expression was observed when gene expression values were subjected to a stringent statistical analysis such as the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. However, when a t-test was employed to analyze microarray data, 130 transcripts were found to be potentially modulated after exposure. To further quantitatively analyze these preselected transcripts, real-time PCR was performed on 24 genes with the best combination of high fold change and low P-value. Five of them, namely CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: An effective solution for increasing the exposure uniformity and efficiency of biological samples in in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments at 60 GHz is proposed by introducing a novel choke ring antenna (CRA). The CRA is optimized to provide a uniform exposure of samples, whose dimensions are equivalent to those of a standard 35-mm Petri dish, positioned close to the antenna aperture, i.e. 10 to 20 wavelengths. The antenna prototype is fabricated in metallized foam. The realized exposure efficiency of the sample exceeds 55% ...IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 05/2013; 61(5). · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency radiations constitute a new form of environmental pollution. Among them, millimeter waves (MMW) will be widely used in the near future for high speed communication systems. This study aimed therefore to evaluate the biocompatibility of MMW at 60 GHz. For this purpose, we used a whole gene expression approach to assess the effect of acute 60 GHz exposure on primary cultures of human keratinocytes. Controls were performed to dissociate the electromagnetic from the thermal effect of MMW. Microarray data were validated by RT-PCR, in order to ensure the reproducibility of the results. MMW exposure at 20 mW/cm2, corresponding to the maximum incident power density authorized for public use (local exposure averaged over 1 cm2), led to an increase of temperature and to a strong modification of keratinocyte gene expression (665 genes differentially expressed). Nevertheless, when temperature is artificially maintained constant, no modification in gene expression was observed after MMW exposure. However, a heat shock control did not mimic exactly the MMW effect, suggesting a slight but specific electromagnetic effect under hyperthermia conditions (34 genes differentially expressed). By RT-PCR, we analyzed the time course of the transcriptomic response and 7 genes have been validated as differentially expressed: ADAMTS6, NOG, IL7R, FADD, JUNB, SNAI2 and HIST1H1A. Our data evidenced a specific electromagnetic effect of MMW, which is associated to the cellular response to hyperthermia. This study raises the question of co-exposures associating radiofrequencies and other environmental sources of cellular stress.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e109435. · 3.53 Impact Factor