Whole-genome expression analysis in primary human keratinocyte cell cultures exposed to 60?GHz radiation
ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to investigate potential responses of skin cells to millimeter wave (MMW) radiation increasingly used in the wireless technologies. Primary human skin cells were exposed for 1, 6, or 24 h to 60.4 GHz with an average incident power density of 1.8 mW/cm(2) and an average specific absorption rate of 42.4 W/kg. A large-scale analysis was performed to determine whether these exposures could affect the gene expression. Gene expression microarrays containing over 41,000 unique human transcript probe sets were used, and data obtained for sham and exposed cells were compared. No significant difference in gene expression was observed when gene expression values were subjected to a stringent statistical analysis such as the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. However, when a t-test was employed to analyze microarray data, 130 transcripts were found to be potentially modulated after exposure. To further quantitatively analyze these preselected transcripts, real-time PCR was performed on 24 genes with the best combination of high fold change and low P-value. Five of them, namely CRIP2, PLXND1, PTX3, SERPINF1, and TRPV2, were confirmed as differentially expressed after 6 h of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Mots-clefs : ondes millimétriques, effets biologiques, études in vivo et in vitro. Key words: millimeter waves, biological effect, in vivo and in vitro studies. Résumé: Les ondes millimétriques correspondent à la gamme des fréquences comprises entre 30 GHz et 300 GHz. De nombreuses applications existent et émergent actuellement dans ce domaine, notamment en télécommunications, imagerie et surveillance. De plus, certaines de ces fréquences sont utilisées en thérapie en Europe de l'Est, ce qui suggère que des interférences avec l'organisme sont possibles. Cette revue vise à résumer l'état des connaissances actuelles sur les interactions ondes millimétriques / matière vivante. Quelques exemples représentatifs de la littérature scientifique seront exposés dans cette revue. Nous décrirons enfin plus en détail des résultats obtenus par notre laboratoire, portant sur l'impact des paramètres d'exposition sur le déclenchement du stress cellulaire et sur la modification de l'expression génique.
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ABSTRACT: Aperture-field exposure setups are applied in experiments detecting the effects of millimeter-wave (MMW) exposure on cells in vitro. In this paper, the studied exposure setup with standard components includes cells plated in a 35-mm Petri dish at the aperture of a horn irradiating 50.0-GHz MMW. Incorporating the subvoxel model and symmetry formulas, the finite-difference time-domain algorithm of the Maxwell equations and the finite-difference algorithm of the Pennes bioheat equation are used to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR), absorption efficiency of the MMW power, and temperature rise in the cell culture. The numerical methods and models are supported by experimental measurement and theoretical analyses. The exposure of 31.2-mW MMW results in an averaged SAR of 44.9 W/kg in cells, quantitatively compatible with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection limits to the incident power density. 46.9% of the MMW power is efficiently absorbed and accumulates a maximum temperature rise of 0.12°C in cells. The exposure intensity is selectable with acceptable homogeneity by proper cell sampling. The MMW multiple reflection of the aperture-field exposure is analyzed about its significant influences on the dosimetry and temperature results. Another comparison reveals the efficacious power matching of the Petri dish and its dosimetric contribution. The power threshold for time-unlimited exposures, time limits for high-power exposures, and adaptive air cooling are quantified to control the temperature variance within ±0.1°C. This paper presents the first detailed quantification and characterization of the dosimetry and temperature environments for the MMW aperture-field exposure setup in application to in vitro experiments for over 30 years.IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 11/2012; 60(11):3608-3622. DOI:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2213829 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An effective solution for increasing the exposure uniformity and efficiency of biological samples in in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments at 60 GHz is proposed by introducing a novel choke ring antenna (CRA). The CRA is optimized to provide a uniform exposure of samples, whose dimensions are equivalent to those of a standard 35-mm Petri dish, positioned close to the antenna aperture, i.e. 10 to 20 wavelengths. The antenna prototype is fabricated in metallized foam. The realized exposure efficiency of the sample exceeds 55% ...IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 05/2013; 61(5). DOI:10.1109/TMTT.2013.2255619 · 2.94 Impact Factor