Distribution characteristics of clarithromycin and azithromycin, macrolide antimicrobial agents used for treatment of respiratory infections, in lung epithelial lining fluid and alveolar macrophages.
ABSTRACT The distribution characteristics of clarithromycin (CAM) and azithromycin (AZM), macrolide antimicrobial agents, in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were evaluated. In the in vivo animal experiments, the time-courses of the concentrations of CAM and AZM in ELF and AMs following oral administration (50 mg/kg) to rats were markedly higher than those in plasma, and the area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of ELF/plasma of CAM and AZM were 12 and 2.2, and the AUC ratios of AMs/ELF were 37 and 291, respectively. In the in vitro transport experiments, the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM through model lung epithelial cell (Calu-3) monolayers were greater than the apical-to-basolateral transport. MDR1 substrates reduced the basolateral-to-apical transport of CAM and AZM. In the in vitro uptake experiments, the intracellular concentrations of CAM and AZM in cultured AMs (NR8383) were greater than the extracellular concentrations. The uptake of CAM and AZM by NR8383 was inhibited by ATP depletors. These data suggest that the high distribution of CAM and AZM to AMs is due to the sustained distribution to ELF via MDR1 as well as the high uptake by the AMs themselves via active transport mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: The steady-state concentrations of solithromycin in plasma were compared with concomitant concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from intrapulmonary samples during bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 30 healthy adult subjects. Subjects received oral solithromycin at 400 mg once daily for five consecutive days. Bronchoscopy and BAL were carried out once in each subject at either 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 h after the last administered dose of solithromycin. Drug concentrations in plasma, ELF, and AM were assayed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Solithromycin was concentrated extensively in ELF (range of mean [± standard deviation] concentrations, 1.02 ± 0.83 to 7.58 ± 6.69 mg/liter) and AM (25.9 ± 20.3 to 101.7 ± 52.6 mg/liter) in comparison with simultaneous plasma concentrations (0.086 ± 0.070 to 0.730 ± 0.692 mg/liter). The values for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24) values) based on mean and median ELF concentrations were 80.3 and 63.2 mg · h/liter, respectively. The ratio of ELF to plasma concentrations based on the mean and median AUC(0-24) values were 10.3 and 10.0, respectively. The AUC(0-24) values based on mean and median concentrations in AM were 1,498 and 1,282 mg · h/L, respectively. The ratio of AM to plasma concentrations based on the mean and median AUC(0-24) values were 193 and 202, respectively. Once-daily oral dosing of solithromycin at 400 mg produced steady-state concentrations that were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in ELF (2.4 to 28.6 times) and AM (44 to 515 times) than simultaneous plasma concentrations throughout the 24-h period after 5 days of solithromycin administration.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2012; 56(10):5076-81. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A single inhaled dose of laninamivir octanoate (LO), a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor, exhibits efficacy in treating both adult and pediatric patients with influenza virus infection. The intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of LO and laninamivir, a pharmacologically active metabolite, were investigated by a single-center, open-label study of healthy adult volunteers. Subgroups of five subjects each underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 168, and 240 h following a single inhaled administration of LO (40 mg). Plasma, BAL fluid, and alveolar macrophages (AM) were analyzed to determine LO and laninamivir concentrations, using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The concentrations in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and AM from the first and subsequent BAL fluid samples were determined separately to explore the drug distribution in airways. Mean laninamivir concentrations in ELF, calculated using the first BAL fluids and BAL fluids collected 4 h after inhaled administration, were 8.57 and 2.40 μg/ml, respectively. The laninamivir concentration in ELF decreased with a longer half-life than that in plasma, and it exceeded the 50% inhibitory concentrations for viral neuraminidases at all time points examined for 240 h after the inhalation. Laninamivir exposure in ELF from the first BAL samples was 3.2 times higher than that in ELF from the subsequent BAL fluid samples. ELF concentration profiles of laninamivir support its long-lasting effect for treatment of patients with influenza virus infection by a single inhaled administration.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2012; 56(7):3873-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One recent, double-blind, randomized clinical trial with 200 patients showed that clarithromycin administered intravenously for 3 days in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) accelerated the resolution of pneumonia and decreased the risk of death from septic shock and multiple organ dysfunctions (MODS). The present study focused on the effect of clarithromycin on markers of inflammation in these patients. Blood was drawn immediately before the administration of the allocated treatment and on six consecutive days after the start of treatment. The concentrations of circulating markers were measured. Monocytes and neutrophils were isolated for immunophenotyping analysis and for cytokine stimulation. The ratio of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) to serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was decreased in the clarithromycin group compared with the results in the placebo group. Apoptosis of monocytes was significantly increased on day 4 in the clarithromycin group compared with the rate of apoptosis in the placebo group. On the same day, the expression of CD86 was increased and the ratio of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) to CD86 in serum was unchanged. The release of TNF-α, IL-6, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) by circulating monocytes after stimulation was greater in the clarithromycin group than in the placebo group. The expression of TREM-1 on monocytes was also increased in the former group. These effects were pronounced in patients with septic shock and MODS. These results suggest that the administration of clarithromycin restored the balance between proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory mediators in patients with sepsis; this was accompanied by more efficient antigen presentation and increased apoptosis. These effects render new perspectives for the immunotherapy of sepsis.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2012; 56(7):3819-25. · 4.57 Impact Factor