Repeat gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 2.53). 08/2011; 70(2):295-305; discussion 305. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318230218e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) may recur after treatment by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSR).
To evaluate management outcomes in patients who underwent repeat GKSR for TN.
The authors reviewed their experience with repeat GKSR in 119 patients with recurrent TN. The median patient age was 74 years (range, 34-96 years). The median interval between procedures was 26 months. The median target dose for repeat GKSR was 70 Gy (range, 50-90 Gy) and the median cumulative dose was 145 Gy (range, 120-170 Gy). The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 6-187 months) after repeat GKSR.
After repeat GKSR, 87% of patients achieved initial pain relief (Barrow Neurological Institute pain score I-IIIb). Pain relief was maintained in 87.8% at 1 year, 69.8% at 3 years, and 44.2% at 5 years. Facial sensory dysfunction occurred in 21% of patients within 18 months after GKSR. Longer pain relief was observed in patients who had recurrent pain in a reduced pain distribution of the face compared with the pain distribution at the time of their initial GKSR, and in those who developed additional trigeminal sensory loss after a repeat procedure. A cumulative edge of brainstem dose ≥ 44 Gy was more likely to be associated with the development of sensory loss.
Repeat GKSR provides a similar rate of pain relief as the first procedure. The best responses were observed in patients who had good pain control after the first procedure and those who developed new sensory dysfunction in the affected trigeminal distribution.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine factors associated with the durability of stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials Between 1999 and 2008, 446 of 777 patients with TN underwent SRS and had evaluable follow-up in our electronic medical records and phone interview records. The median follow-up was 21.2 months. The Barrow Neurologic Institute (BNI) pain scale was used to determine pre- and post-SRS pain. Dose-volume anatomical measurements, Burchiel pain subtype, pain quality, prior procedures, and medication usage were included in this retrospective cohort to identify factors impacting the time to BNI 4-5 pain relapse by using Cox proportional hazard regression. An internet-based nomogram was constructed based on predictive factors of durable relief pre- and posttreatment at 6-month intervals. Results Rates of freedom from BNI 4-5 failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 84.5%, 70.4%, and 46.9%, respectively. Pain relief was BNI 1-3 at 1, 3, and 5 years in 86.1%, 74.3%, and 51.3% of type 1 patients; 79.3%, 46.2%, and 29.3% of type 2 patients; and 62.7%, 50.2%, and 25% of atypical facial pain patients. BNI type 1 pain score was achieved at 1, 3, and 5 years in 62.9%, 43.5%, and 22.0% of patients with type 1 pain and in 47.5%, 25.2%, and 9.2% of type 2 patients, respectively. Only 13% of patients with atypical facial pain achieved BNI 1 response; 42% of patients developed post-Gamma Knife radiation surgery (GKRS) trigeminal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis revealed that post-SRS numbness (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; P<.0001), type 1 (vs type 2) TN (HR, 0.6; P=.02), and improved post-SRS BNI score at 6 months (HR, 0.009; P<.0001) were predictive of a durable pain response. Conclusions The durability of SRS for TN depends on the presenting Burchiel pain type, the post-SRS BNI score, and the presence of post-SRS facial numbness. The durability of pain relief can be estimated pre- and posttreatment by using our nomogram for situations when the potential of relapse may guide the decision for initial intervention.
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    ABSTRACT: To report outcomes of patients with medical and/or surgical refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GK SRS). One hundred and forty-nine patients with 152 cases of TN treated with GK SRS were analyzed. All patients, except one, received a dose of 40Gy to the 50% isodose volume. The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score was used to grade pain. Actuarial rates of pain relief were calculated. Multiple factors were analyzed for association with pain relief. The median follow up was 27 months (4-71 months). Overall 92% of cases achieved a BNI score I-III after GK SRS. Of those who had pain relief after GK SRS, 32% developed pain recurrence defined as a BNI score of IV or V. The actuarial rate of freedom from pain recurrence (BNI scores I-III) of all treated cases at 1, 2 and 3-years was 76%, 69% and 60%, respectively. On univariate analysis age ≥70 was predictive of better pain relief (p=0.046). Type of pain, prior surgery, multiple sclerosis, number of isocenters, treated nerve length, volume and thickness and distance from the root entry zone to the isocenter were not significant for maintaining a BNI score of I-III. Those who achieved a BNI score of I or II were more likely to maintain pain relief compared to those who only achieved a BNI score of III (93% vs 38% at three years, p<0.01). The rate of pain relief of twenty-seven patients who underwent repeat GK SRS was 70% and 62% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Toxicity after first GK SRS was minimal with 25% of cases experiencing only new or worsening post-treatment numbness. GK SRS provides acceptable pain relief with limited morbidity in patients with medical and/or surgical refractory TN.
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    ABSTRACT: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) recurring after surgery can be difficult to treat. Treatment algorithms have not been standardized or universally accepted. Here we investigated the effectiveness of percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) in the treatment of patients with TN recurrence after other surgical techniques and analyzed the role of some clinical and operative factors in determining the prognosis. The records of 22 patients (13 M and 9 F) suffering recurrent TN after one (2 gamma knife surgery, 5 percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy, 6 percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy, 3 microvascular decompression) or more (6 patients) procedures and submitted to PBC at our institution from January 2003 to February 2012 were reviewed. Seven patients had TN related to multiple sclerosis (MS). Mean follow-up was 51.81 ± 26.63 months. 81.81 % of patients reported an acute pain relief. No major complication was observed after PBC. Eight patients (36.36 %) experienced pain recurrence and underwent one (five patients) or more (three patients) PBC. At the last follow-up, we obtained an excellent outcome (BNI I-II) in 16 patients out of 22 (72.72 %) and a good outcome (BNI III) in the remaining six. No patients had an uncontrolled pain. The lack of history of MS (p = 0.0174), the pear-like shape of the balloon at the operation (p = 0.0234) and a compression time <5 min (p < 0.05) were associated to higher pain-free survival. Considering these results PBC could be considered a useful technique for patients whose pain recurs after other procedures.
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