Increased midgestational IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 451 Health Sciences Dr, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA. .
Molecular Autism (Impact Factor: 5.49). 08/2011; 2:13. DOI: 10.1186/2040-2392-2-13
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immune anomalies have been documented in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their family members. It is unknown whether the maternal immune profile during pregnancy is associated with the risk of bearing a child with ASD or other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Using Luminex technology, levels of 17 cytokines and chemokines were measured in banked serum collected from women at 15 to 19 weeks of gestation who gave birth to a child ultimately diagnosed with (1) ASD (n = 84), (2) a developmental delay (DD) but not autism (n = 49) or (3) no known developmental disability (general population (GP); n = 159). ASD and DD risk associated with maternal cytokine and chemokine levels was estimated by using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Elevated concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in midgestation maternal serum were significantly associated with a 50% increased risk of ASD, regardless of ASD onset type and the presence of intellectual disability. By contrast, elevated concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of DD without autism.
The profile of elevated serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 was more common in women who gave birth to a child subsequently diagnosed with ASD. An alternative profile of increased IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 was more common for women who gave birth to a child subsequently diagnosed with DD without autism. Further investigation is needed to characterize the relationship between these divergent maternal immunological phenotypes and to evaluate their effect on neurodevelopment.

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Available from: Judy Van de Water, Jul 25, 2015
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    • "。而在细胞培 养中,高 IFN-γ 可以诱导神经毒性作用。ASD 患者 尸检脑标本表明 IFN-γ 水平增加 [35] ,表明 ASD 患 者体内 IFN-γ 可能直接影响中枢神经系统的活动。 目前很难确定是否 IFN-γ 在 ASD 中存在致病作用, 或者它代表一个潜在的有益的免疫反应 [25] 。有研 究发现 ASD 患儿的母亲血清 IFN-γ 水平较高 [32] "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neuro-developmental disorders in early childhood which are defined by social difficulties, communication deficits and repetitive or restrictive interests and behaviours. The etiology of ASD remains poorly understood. Much research has shown that children with ASD suffer from immunological dysfunction. This article reviews the current research progress on immunological dysfunction in children with ASD, including abnormalities in immune cells, antibodies, complements, cytokines, major histocompatibility complex and their potential association with ASD, and explores the impacts of maternal immunological activation on the immune dysfunction of children with ASD.
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    • "Intrauterine inflammation is increasingly being recognized as a key contributor to adverse neurological outcomes in infants born preterm (Goines et al., 2011). Evidence suggests that infants and children with ASD exhibit altered immunological status relative to unaffected children. "
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    • "There is yet no direct evidence that transplacental transmission of antibody from an affected mother to a fetus has resulted in ASD. However, there seems to be significant evidence that an antibody not recognized as pathogenic in the mother can produce ASD in the infant [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] (See Figures 2 A, B, C). In 2003, Dalton et al. reported injecting serum antibodies from a mother of children with ASD into pregnant mice during gestation and found altered behavior in the offspring compared with offspring of mice injected with sera from mothers of healthy children (See Figures 2 A, D, E). "
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