Increased midgestational IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 451 Health Sciences Dr, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA. .
Molecular Autism (Impact Factor: 5.41). 08/2011; 2(1):13. DOI: 10.1186/2040-2392-2-13
Source: PubMed


Immune anomalies have been documented in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their family members. It is unknown whether the maternal immune profile during pregnancy is associated with the risk of bearing a child with ASD or other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Using Luminex technology, levels of 17 cytokines and chemokines were measured in banked serum collected from women at 15 to 19 weeks of gestation who gave birth to a child ultimately diagnosed with (1) ASD (n = 84), (2) a developmental delay (DD) but not autism (n = 49) or (3) no known developmental disability (general population (GP); n = 159). ASD and DD risk associated with maternal cytokine and chemokine levels was estimated by using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Elevated concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in midgestation maternal serum were significantly associated with a 50% increased risk of ASD, regardless of ASD onset type and the presence of intellectual disability. By contrast, elevated concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of DD without autism.
The profile of elevated serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 was more common in women who gave birth to a child subsequently diagnosed with ASD. An alternative profile of increased IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 was more common for women who gave birth to a child subsequently diagnosed with DD without autism. Further investigation is needed to characterize the relationship between these divergent maternal immunological phenotypes and to evaluate their effect on neurodevelopment.

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    • "。而在细胞培 养中,高 IFN-γ 可以诱导神经毒性作用。ASD 患者 尸检脑标本表明 IFN-γ 水平增加 [35] ,表明 ASD 患 者体内 IFN-γ 可能直接影响中枢神经系统的活动。 目前很难确定是否 IFN-γ 在 ASD 中存在致病作用, 或者它代表一个潜在的有益的免疫反应 [25] 。有研 究发现 ASD 患儿的母亲血清 IFN-γ 水平较高 [32] "
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    • "A maternal infection or immune response includes cytokines, which affect aspects of fetal neurogenesis, neuronal migration (140), synaptic plasticity, and stem cell fate (141). Elevated serum IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were more common in women who gave birth to a child subsequently diagnosed with ASD (142). Fetal IL-6 exposure, especially in late pregnancy, leads abnormalities of hippocampal structural and morphology, and decreased learning during adulthood (139). "
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