Magnetic resonance imaging volumetry and clinical analysis of epilepsy patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormality.
ABSTRACT In order to clarify the correlation between morphological characteristics and clinical features in epilepsy patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormality, morphological and morphometric magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed.
We selected a series of childhood-onset epilepsy patients with unilateral hippocampal abnormality. The volume of hippocampal formation and anterior temporal lobe were measured, and the hippocampal morphology was compared with their clinical features. The morphological characteristics of the hippocampal formation were classified into three groups: group I, diffuse and severe volume reduction of the hippocampal formation and anterior temporal lobe with abnormal signal; group II, focal atrophy or focal abnormal signal in the hippocampal formation; and group III, no significant volume reduction but an enlargement of the temporal horn.
All of the patients in group I had a history of status epilepticus in infancy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was found in three of four patients. Group II contained TLE in three and frontal lobe epilepsy in one. One patient with intractable TLE had a history of status epilepticus in infancy. Group III contained miscellaneous epilepsies, including benign partial epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes in three of seven patients. Five patients in group III showed some characteristic features of hippocampal malrotation, which refers to incomplete hippocampal infolding.
Diffuse and severe volume reduction of the hippocampal formation and anterior temporal lobe with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis was strongly associated with status epilepticus in infancy. Both hippocampal sclerosis and hippocampal malrotation suggest significant roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.
- Biology of the Neonate 02/1971; 19(4):363-78. · 1.90 Impact Factor
- Brain 02/1970; 93(4):821-30. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether measurements of the volume of the hippocampal formation obtained from a three-dimensional acquisition not perpendicular to the hippocampus are statistically different from those obtained from a perpendicular acquisition. Both hippocampi were studied in 10 healthy volunteers with two three-dimensional acquisitions, allowing three different volume-calculation protocols: (a) on sections from a coronal 3-D acquisition not perpendicular to the axis of the hippocampal formation (NOPERP protocol), (b) on sections obtained with the same acquisition but reformatted perpendicular to the axis of the hippocampal formation (REFOR protocol), and (c) on sections from a coronal 3-D acquisition perpendicular to the axis of the hippocampal formation (PERP protocol) obtained with the patient's head tilted backward. To obtain measurements of the volume of the hippocampal formations, an accurate 3-D processing technique was used to segment the hippocampus. In all subjects, two hippocampal formation right-left asymmetry indexes were calculated by using each of the three protocols. For the right hippocampus, the mean volume was 3.42 cm3 (NOPERP protocol), 4.18 cm3 (REFOR protocol), and 3.91 cm3 (PERP protocol). For the left hippocampus, the mean volume was 3.29 cm3 (NOPERP protocol), 4.02 cm3 (REFOR protocol), and 3.74 cm3 (PERP protocol). For both hippocampi, the differences of the mean volumes were significant between each protocol. However, for both hippocampi, a high correlation was observed between volumes obtained with the different protocols. For the two asymmetry indexes, there were no significant differences for the means obtained with the three protocols. With the use of 3-D acquisitions in the study of hippocampal formation biometry, different procedures lead to significant variations in the absolute values of the volume of the hippocampal formation. However, there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by each method.American Journal of Neuroradiology 17(6):1091-8. · 3.17 Impact Factor