LRRC4 inhibits the proliferation of human glioma cells by modulating the expression of STMN1 and microtubule polymerization.
ABSTRACT LRRC4 is a tumor suppressor of glioma, and it is epigenetically inactivated commonly in glioma. Our previous study has shown that induction of LRRC4 expression inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the action of LRRC4 in glioma cells. We employed two-dimensional fluorescence differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and MALDI -TOF/TOF-MS/MS to identify 11 differentially expressed proteins, including the significantly down-regulated STMN1 expression in the LRRC4-expressing U251 glioma cells. The levels of STMN1 expression appeared to be positively associated with the pathogenic degrees of human glioma. Furthermore, induction of LRRC4 over-expression inhibited the STMN1 expression and U251 cell proliferation in vitro, and the glioma growth in vivo. In addition, induction of LRRC4 or knockdown of STMN1 expression induced cell cycle arrest in U251 cells, which was associated with modulating the p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin B expression, and the ERK phosphorylation, and inhibiting the CDK5 and cdc2 kinase activities, but increasing the microtubulin polymerization in U251 cells. LRRC4, at least partially by down-regulating the STMN1expression, acts as a major glioma suppressor, induces cell cycle arrest and modulates the dynamic process of microtubulin, leading to the inhibition of glioma cell proliferation and growth. Potentially, modulation of LRRC4 or STMN1 expression may be useful for design of new therapies for the intervention of glioma.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, pituicytoma and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. Histological variants were added if there was evidence of a different age distribution, location, genetic profile or clinical behaviour; these included pilomyxoid astrocytoma, anaplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. The WHO grading scheme and the sections on genetic profiles were updated and the rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome was added to the list of familial tumour syndromes typically involving the nervous system. As in the previous, 2000 edition of the WHO 'Blue Book', the classification is accompanied by a concise commentary on clinico-pathological characteristics of each tumour type. The 2007 WHO classification is based on the consensus of an international Working Group of 25 pathologists and geneticists, as well as contributions from more than 70 international experts overall, and is presented as the standard for the definition of brain tumours to the clinical oncology and cancer research communities world-wide.Acta Neuropathologica 09/2007; 114(2):97-109. · 9.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stathmin is a member of a novel class of microtubule-destabilizing proteins that regulate the dynamics of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization. Stathmin promotes microtubule depolymerization during interphase and late mitosis. This microtubule depolymerizing activity of stathmin is regulated by changes in its level of phosphorylation that occur during cell cycle progression. These modifications allow it to play a critical role in the regulation of the dynamic equilibrium of microtubules during different phases of the cell cycle. Stathmin is expressed at high levels in a wide variety of human cancers. Inhibition of stathmin expression in malignant cells interferes with their orderly progression through the cell cycle and abrogates their transformed phenotype. Thus, stathmin provides an attractive molecular target for disrupting the mitotic apparatus and arresting the growth of malignant cells. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the role of stathmin in the regulation of the mitotic spindle and discuss its potential as a therapeutic target of cancer therapy.Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine 11/2002; 69(5):299-304. · 1.99 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein extraction methods can vary widely in reproducibility and in representation of the total proteome, yet there are limited data comparing protein isolation methods. The methodical comparison of protein isolation methods is the first critical step for proteomic studies. To address this, we compared three methods for isolation, purification, and solubilization of insect proteins. The aphid Schizaphis graminum, an agricultural pest, was the source of insect tissue. Proteins were extracted using TCA in acetone (TCA-acetone), phenol, or multi-detergents in a chaotrope solution. Extracted proteins were solubilized in a multiple chaotrope solution and examined using 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and compared directly using 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from each extraction type. We were unable to ascribe the differences in the proteins extracted to particular physical characteristics, cell location, or biological function. The TCA-acetone extraction yielded the greatest amount of protein from aphid tissues. Each extraction method isolated a unique subset of the aphid proteome. The TCA-acetone method was explored further for its quantitative reliability using 2-D DIGE. Principal component analysis showed that little of the variation in the data was a result of technical issues, thus demonstrating that the TCA-acetone extraction is a reliable method for preparing aphid proteins for a quantitative proteomics experiment. These data suggest that although the TCA-acetone method is a suitable method for quantitative aphid proteomics, a combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based separation techniques.Journal of biomolecular techniques: JBT 10/2009; 20(4):201-15.