Spatiotemporally Regulated Protein Kinase A Activity Is a Critical Regulator of Growth Factor-Stimulated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in PC12 Cells

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.78). 08/2011; 31(19):4063-75. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.05459-11
Source: PubMed


PC12 cells exhibit precise temporal control of growth factor signaling in which stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity and cell proliferation, whereas nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation leads to sustained ERK activity and differentiation. While cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated signaling has been shown to be important in conferring the sustained ERK activity achieved by NGF, little is known about the regulation of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in these cells. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors localized to discrete subcellular locations, we showed that both NGF and EGF potently activate PKA at the plasma membrane, although they generate temporally distinct activity patterns. We further show that both stimuli fail to induce cytosolic PKA activity and identify phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) as a critical regulator in maintaining this spatial compartmentalization. Importantly, inhibition of PDE3, and thus perturbation of the spatiotemporal regulation of PKA activity, dramatically increases the duration of EGF-stimulated nuclear ERK activity in a PKA-dependent manner. Together, these findings identify EGF and NGF as potent activators of PKA activity specifically at the plasma membrane and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism contributing to the growth factor signaling specificity achieved by NGF and EGF in PC12 cells.

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    • "A good example is the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, which plays a vital role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis [7], [8], [9], [10]. Extensive studies of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway have suggested that its functional outcome depends on its activation kinetics [11], [12]. For instance, although EGF and NGF trigger similar sets of signaling pathways in PC12 cells including Raf/MEK/ERK [7], [8], PI3K/AKT [13], and PLCγ pathways [14], [15], EGF induces cell proliferation while NGF induces cell differentiation accompanied by cell cycle arrest [3], [16], [17], [18], [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation, respectively. However, a direct and quantitative linkage between the temporal profile of Raf/MEK/ERK activation and the cellular outputs has not been established due to a lack of means to precisely perturb its signaling kinetics. Here, we construct a light-gated protein-protein interaction system to regulate the activation pattern of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Light-induced activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade leads to significant neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines in the absence of growth factors. Compared with NGF stimulation, light stimulation induces longer but fewer neurites. Intermittent on/off illumination reveals that cells achieve maximum neurite outgrowth if the off-time duration per cycle is shorter than 45 min. Overall, light-mediated kinetic control enables precise dissection of the temporal dimension within the intracellular signal transduction network.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92917. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092917 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, qualitative, context‐dependent differences in observable kinetics should be expected across cell lineages and culture conditions that affect the expression levels of ERK substrates and phosphatases. Indeed, in EGF‐stimulated PC12 cells, free ERK activities in the cytosol and nucleus were found to be transient, with no apparent lag between the cytosolic and nuclear responses (Herbst et al, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway controls cell proliferation and differentiation in metazoans. Two hallmarks of its dynamics are adaptation of ERK phosphorylation, which has been linked to negative feedback, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, which allows active ERK to phosphorylate protein substrates in the nucleus and cytosol. To integrate these complex features, we acquired quantitative biochemical and live-cell microscopy data to reconcile phosphorylation, localization, and activity states of ERK. While maximal growth factor stimulation elicits transient ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation responses, ERK activities available to phosphorylate substrates in the cytosol and nuclei show relatively little or no adaptation. Free ERK activity in the nucleus temporally lags the peak in nuclear translocation, indicating a slow process. Additional experiments, guided by kinetic modeling, show that this process is consistent with ERK's modification of and release from nuclear substrate anchors. Thus, adaptation of whole-cell ERK phosphorylation is a by-product of transient protection from phosphatases. Consistent with this interpretation, predictions concerning the dose-dependence of the pathway response and its interruption by inhibition of MEK were experimentally confirmed.
    Molecular Systems Biology 01/2014; 10(1):718. DOI:10.1002/msb.134708 · 10.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PDE3 is a dual-substrate phosphodiesterase responsible for hydrolyzing both cAMP and cGMP whilst being simultaneously inhibited by cGMP. This feature is related to presence of the 44 amino acid insert in the catalytic domain, which determines the mechanism of introduction of the cyclic nucleotide into the catalytic pocket of the enzyme. Once bound in the catalytic site cGMP results in steric hindrance for cAMP to enter the site. The regulatory domain of PDE3 consists of two hydrophobic regions: NHR1 and NHR2. Their presence defines the enzyme's intracellular localization, thus determining its participation in particular signaling cascades. Due to the properties of PDE3 this enzyme has exceptional importance for the cross-talk between cAMP-dependent signaling and other cascades. There are two different mechanisms of action of PDE3 enzymes in cell signaling pathways. In many signaling cascades assembly of a signalosome is necessary for phosphorylation and activation of the PDE3 proteins. In response to certain hormones and growth factors, PDE3 merges the metabolism of cAMP with protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. PDE3 also controls the level of cAMP with regard to the alternating concentration of cGMP. This effect occurs in signaling cascades activated by natriuretic peptide.
    Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 01/2012; 66:492-500. DOI:10.5604/17322693.1004074 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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