Depression outcomes in psychiatric clinical practice: using a self-rated measure of depression severity.
ABSTRACT This study determined rates of response and remission at 12 and 24 weeks among patients being treated by psychiatrists for depression on the basis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores and identified factors associated with response and remission.
Adult patients at 17 psychiatric practices participating in the National Depression Management Leadership Initiative completed the PHQ-9 at every office visit for one year irrespective of severity or chronicity of symptoms or adherence to treatment. Treating psychiatrists recorded the date when formal self-management goals were documented. Patients with a diagnosis of depression and a PHQ-9 score ≥10 were included in the response and remission analysis. Results are based on "last observation carried forward" analysis.
Of the 1,763 patients with a depressive disorder, 960 had PHQ-9 scores ≥10 (mean±SD of 16.4±4.6) on their first study visit, indicating moderate to severe depression. At 12 weeks, 41% of the 792 who returned for follow-up had responded to treatment, and by 24 weeks 45% had responded. Response was defined as a PHQ-9 score <10. Symptoms were in remission for 13% and 18% of patients at 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Severity of initial PHQ-9 score, weeks to first follow-up, and documented self-management were the three factors that predicted remission.
Administering the PHQ-9 at each visit allowed psychiatrists to determine rates of response and remission among patients, but as anticipated, the rates were lower than those reported in trials of efficacy and effectiveness of psychiatric treatment of depression.
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ABSTRACT: Objective This study aimed to assess the accuracy and operating characteristics of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression screening in adults with epilepsy. Methods Tertiary epilepsy center patients served as the study population, with 237 agreeing to structured interview using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a “gold standard” instrument developed for rapid diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD); 172 also completed the PHQ-9, and 127 completed both the PHQ-9 and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) within two days of the MINI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and areas under the ROC curves for each instrument were determined. Cut-points of 10 for the PHQ-9 and 15 for the NDDI-E were used, and ratings at or above the cut-points were considered screen-positive. The PHQ-9 was divided into cognitive/affective (PHQ-9/CA) and somatic (PHQ-9/S) subscales to determine comparative depression screening accuracy. Results The calculated areas under the ROC curves for the PHQ-9 (n = 172) and the PHQ-9/CA and PHQ-9/S subscales were 0.914, 0.924, and 0.846, respectively, with the PHQ-9 more accurate than the PHQ-9/S (p = 0.002) but not different from the PHQ-9/CA (p = 0.378). At cut-points of 10 and 15, respectively, the PHQ-9 had higher sensitivity (0.92 vs 0.87) but lower specificity (0.74 vs 0.89) compared with the NDDI-E. The areas under the ROC curves of the PHQ-9 and the NDDI-E showed similar accuracy (n = 127; 0.930 vs 0.934; p = 0.864). Significance The PHQ-9 is an efficient and nonproprietary depression screening instrument with excellent accuracy validated for use in adult patients with epilepsy as well as multiple other medical populations.Epilepsy & Behavior 08/2014; 37:215–220. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This report describes the sustainability of quality improvement interventions for depression care in psychiatric practice one year after the completion of the National Depression Management Leadership Initiative (NDMLI) in 2006. The main intervention involved continued use of the nine-item depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for routine care of patients with depressive disorders. METHODS One year after project completion, lead psychiatrists from the 17 participating practices were surveyed about the sustainability of key practice interventions and dissemination of the interventions. RESULTS All 14 practices that provided baseline and follow-up data reported sustained use of the PHQ-9 for screening, diagnosis, or monitoring purposes. Moreover, practices reported dissemination of this approach to clinicians within and outside their practices. CONCLUSIONS Psychiatrists reported sustainability and dissemination of PHQ-9 use one year after the conclusion of the NDMLI. The model has potential as a depression care improvement strategy and is worthy of additional study.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 07/2013; 64(7):703-706. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim The impact of initial severity of depression on the rate of remission has not been well studied. The hypothesis for this study was that increased depression severity would have an inverse relationship on clinical remission at six months while in collaborative care management. Participants The study cohort was 1128 primary care patients from a south-eastern Minnesota practice and was a longitudinal retrospective chart review analysis. Results Clinical remission at six months was less likely in the severe depression group at 29.6% compared with 36.9% in the moderately severe group and 45.6% in the moderate depression group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of a sub-group demonstrated that increased initial anxiety symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 0.9645, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9345-0.9954, P = 0.0248) and an abnormal screening for bipolar disorder (OR 0.4856, 95% CI 0.2659-0.8868, P = 0.0187) predicted not achieving remission at six months. A patient with severe depression was significantly less likely to achieve remission at six months (OR 0.6040, 95% CI 0.3803-0.9592, P = 0.0327) compared with moderate depression, but not moderately severe depression (P = 0.2324). There was no statistical difference in the adjusted means of the PHQ-9 score for those patients who were in remission at six months. However, in the unremitted patients, the six-month PHQ-9 score was significantly increased by initial depression severity when controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Multivariate analysis in our study demonstrated that patients with severe depression have a decreased OR for remission at six months compared with moderate depression. Also, there was a significant increase in the six-month PHQ-9 score for those unremitted patients in the severe vs. moderate depression groups.Mental Health in Family Medicine 06/2012; 9(2):99-106.