Postoperative Complications and Mortality Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis
ABSTRACT Complications after colectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC) have not been well characterized in large, population-based studies. We characterized postoperative in-hospital complications, stratified them by severity, and assessed independent clinical predictors, including use of immunosuppressants.
We performed population-based surveillance using administrative databases to identify all adults (≥18 y) who had an International Classification of Diseases-9th/10th revisions code for UC and a colectomy from 1996 to 2009. All medical charts were reviewed. The primary outcome was severe postoperative complications, including in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of complications after colectomy and then restricted to patients undergoing emergent or elective surgeries.
Of the 666 UC patients who underwent a colectomy, a postoperative complication occurred in 27.0% and the mortality rate was 1.5%. Independent predictors of postoperative complications were age (for patients >64 vs 18-34 y: odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-3.54), comorbidities (>2 vs none: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06-3.37), and admission status (emergent vs elective colectomy: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.14-2.30). Significant risk factors for an emergent colectomy included time from admission to colectomy (>14 vs 3-14 d: OR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.62-6.80) and a preoperative complication (≥1 vs 0: OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.33-6.91). A prescription of immunosuppressants before colectomies did not increase the risk for postoperative complications.
Postoperative complications frequently occur after colectomy for UC, predominantly among elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Patients who were admitted to the hospital under emergency conditions and did not respond to medical treatment had worse outcomes when surgery was performed 14 or more days after admission.
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ABSTRACT: To compare venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who respond to medical management to patients requiring colectomy. Population-based surveillance from 1997 to 2009 was used to identify all adults admitted to hospital for a flare of UC and those patients who underwent colectomy. All medical charts were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and extract clinically relevant information. UC patients were stratified by: (1) responsive to inpatient medical therapy (n = 382); (2) medically refractory requiring emergent colectomy (n = 309); and (3) elective colectomy (n = 329). The primary outcome was the development of VTE during hospitalization or within 6 mo of discharge. Heparin prophylaxis to prevent VTE was assessed. Logistic regression analysis determined the effect of disease course (i.e., responsive to medical therapy, medically refractory, and elective colectomy) on VTE after adjusting for confounders including age, sex, smoking, disease activity, comorbidities, extent of disease, and IBD medications (i.e., corticosteroids, mesalamine, azathioprine, and infliximab). Point estimates were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI. The prevalence of VTE among patients with UC who responded to medical therapy was 1.3% and only 16% of these patients received heparin prophylaxis. In contrast, VTE was higher among patients who underwent an emergent (8.7%) and elective (4.9%) colectomy, despite greater than 90% of patients receiving postoperative heparin prophylaxis. The most common site of VTE was intra-abdominal (45.8%) followed by lower extremity (19.6%). VTE was diagnosed after discharge from hospital in 16.7% of cases. Elective (adjusted OR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.30-10.44) and emergent colectomy (adjusted OR = 5.28; 95%CI: 1.93-14.45) were significant risk factors for VTE as compared to medically responsive UC patients. Furthermore, the odds of a VTE significantly increased across time (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.01-1.20). Age, sex, comorbidities, disease extent, disease activity, smoking, corticosteroids, mesalamine, azathioprine, and infliximab were not independently associated with the development of VTE. VTE was associated with colectomy, particularly, among UC patients who failed medical management. VTE prophylaxis may not be sufficient to prevent VTE in patients undergoing colectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Debate exists concerning the presumed risk of postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) receiving preoperative infliximab (IFX). Meta-analyses are contrasting because of many confounders included into analysis. Our aim was to determine the impact of IFX on pouch-related postoperative complications in patients with UC undergoing surgery with primary ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We performed a systematic review to identify studies comparing the outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for UC with or without previous IFX exposure. The primary end points were (1) early ileal pouch-anal anastomosis-related complications after surgery with primary pouch formation and (2) those occurring after ileostomy closure. Secondary end points were the effects of IFX on total, infectious, and noninfectious complications in patients with UC undergoing any type of surgery. Results are reported as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven papers, including 162 patients receiving biologics and 468 controls all undergoing primary pouch formation, were included for the primary aim. Patients receiving IFX were more likely developing early (OR = 4.12; 95% CI, 2.37-7.15; P < 0.001) and post-ileostomy closure (OR = 2.27; 95% CI, 1.27-4.05; P = 0.005) ileal pouch-anal anastomosis-related complications. Number needed to harm was calculated to be 5 and 4, respectively. Having received at least 3 IFX effusions increased the risk of early complications (OR = 9.59; 95% CI, 2.92-31.44; P = 0.0002), whereas an interval of <12 weeks since last effusion did not (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 0.98-5.64; P = 0.06). Meta-analyses of 14 studies reporting on any type of surgery found that IFX showed a trend toward higher total and infectious complications, but no significant differences were observed. Biologics were associated with lower surgical site infection (OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.45-0.99; P = 0.04). IFX exposure increases early pouch-specific complications and complications after ileostomy closure in UC. Avoiding primary pouch formation could be a prudent approach.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2015; 21(1):79-92. DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000232 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The cost-effectiveness of annual colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine whether annual colonoscopy among patients with IBD-PSC is cost-effective compared with less frequent intervals from the perspective of a publicly funded health care system. Methods: A cost-utility analysis using a Markov model was used to simulate a 35-year-old patient with a 10-year history of well-controlled IBD and a recent diagnosis of concomitant PSC. The following strategies were compared: no surveillance, colonoscopy every 5 years, biennial colonoscopy, and annual colonoscopy. Outcome measures included: costs, number of cases of dysplasia found, number of cancers found and missed, deaths, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, and the incremental cost per QALY gained. Results: In the base-case analysis, no surveillance was the least expensive and least effective strategy. Compared with no surveillance, the cost per QALY of surveillance every 5 years was CAD $15,021. The cost per QALY of biennial surveillance compared with surveillance every 5 years was CAD $ 37,522. Annual surveillance was more effective than biennial surveillance, but at an incremental cost of CAD $ 174,650 per QALY gained compared with biennial surveillance. Conclusions: More frequent colonoscopy screening intervals improve effectiveness (i.e., detects more cancers and prevents additional deaths), but at higher cost. Health systems must consider the opportunity costs associated with different surveillance colonoscopy intervals when deciding which strategy to implement among patients with IBD-PSC.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 09/2014; 20(11). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000181 · 5.48 Impact Factor