Postoperative Complications and Mortality Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (Impact Factor: 6.53). 07/2011; 9(11):972-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2011.07.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Complications after colectomy for ulcerative colitis (UC) have not been well characterized in large, population-based studies. We characterized postoperative in-hospital complications, stratified them by severity, and assessed independent clinical predictors, including use of immunosuppressants.
We performed population-based surveillance using administrative databases to identify all adults (≥18 y) who had an International Classification of Diseases-9th/10th revisions code for UC and a colectomy from 1996 to 2009. All medical charts were reviewed. The primary outcome was severe postoperative complications, including in-hospital mortality. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of complications after colectomy and then restricted to patients undergoing emergent or elective surgeries.
Of the 666 UC patients who underwent a colectomy, a postoperative complication occurred in 27.0% and the mortality rate was 1.5%. Independent predictors of postoperative complications were age (for patients >64 vs 18-34 y: odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-3.54), comorbidities (>2 vs none: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06-3.37), and admission status (emergent vs elective colectomy: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.14-2.30). Significant risk factors for an emergent colectomy included time from admission to colectomy (>14 vs 3-14 d: OR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.62-6.80) and a preoperative complication (≥1 vs 0: OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.33-6.91). A prescription of immunosuppressants before colectomies did not increase the risk for postoperative complications.
Postoperative complications frequently occur after colectomy for UC, predominantly among elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Patients who were admitted to the hospital under emergency conditions and did not respond to medical treatment had worse outcomes when surgery was performed 14 or more days after admission.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The majority of patients with ulcerative colitis can be managed satisfactorily throughout their lives by medical treatment, but a minority require colectomy. In severe attacks, emergency surgery is often required to save the patient's life. In chronic disease not responding well to medical treatment, elective colectomy will restore the patient to good health. Colectomy is also necessary for certain local complications, such as cancer, severe fistulas, and strictures. Prophylactic colectomy is indicated in patients with long-standing disease in whom there are factors associated with a high risk of developing cancer of the large bowel. For all these indications, it is our opinion that single-stage proctocolectomy is the operation of choice in the great majority of patients. Finally, we consider that the best results are obtained when the physician and the surgeon work together in the closest possible cooperation.
    World Journal of Surgery 02/1980; 4(2):195-201. DOI:10.1007/BF02393575 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In accordance with a policy of early colectomy for severe ulcerative colitis, urgent/emergency surgery was performed in 132 patients during the last decade. The indication for surgery was toxic megacolon (45 cases), massive hemorrhage (6 cases), and fulminating colitis not responding to medical treatment within 4 days (81 cases). The operations performed were proctocolectomy (9 cases, mostly of hemorrhage), colectomy plus ileorectal anastomosis (3 cases), and abdominal colectomy plus ileostomy plus proctostomy (CIP) (120 cases, including 45 of toxic megacolon). Secondary proctectomy (SP) was later performed in 113 CIP cases.
    World Journal of Surgery 08/1981; 5(4):607-15. DOI:10.1007/BF01655016 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • British Journal of Surgery 03/1985; 72(3):159-68. DOI:10.1002/bjs.1800720302 · 5.21 Impact Factor