Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect Against Plasmid DNA Strand Scission of Leaf, Bark, and Heartwood Extracts from Acacia catechu

Div of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.7). 08/2011; 76(7):C959-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02284.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The antioxidant activity of methanol extract/fractions of leaf, bark, and heartwood of Acacia catechu was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical, superoxide and hydroxyl radical, reducing power, metal ion chelation, as well as hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission. The leaf, bark, and heartwood powder was extracted in methanol and the lyophilized methanol extract was fractionated with different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. The results indicate that ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood has the highest antioxidant capacities, presenting lower EC50 values particularly in free radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals (4.76 ± 0.14 μg/mL), superoxide anions (26.21 ± 0.79 μg/mL), and hydroxyl radicals (33.69 ± 1.42 μg/mL), in direct assay systems. Reducing power was also highest in ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood (EC50 of 79.05 ± 1.02 μg/mL). As for the chelating power on ferrous ions, leaf extract was more effective than bark and heartwood extracts. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of heartwood significantly protected pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture.
Practical Application: The present investigation suggests that the three organs of A. catechu differ significantly in their antioxidant potential as seen in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, metal ion chelating assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Further, our results showed that crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood of A. catechu might have a good potential as a source for natural health products due to its antioxidant and DNA protective activities.

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Available from: Gurjinder Singh, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "The extract used had a gallic acid phenolic equivalent of 97 mg/mL and a quercetin equivalent flavonoid content of 383.7 mg/mL. Guleria et al. (2011) conducted a detailed analysis of the antioxidant activities and ability to protect against DNA strand breaks with methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate extracts of heartwood, bark, and leaves of A. catechu. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A. catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A. catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12 weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety. © 2015 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2015; 29(6). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5335 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    • "The flavonoid rich extract of A. catechu mainly comprised of catechins demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids [15] as well as immunomodulatory property with a significant effect on cell mediated and humoral immunity against foreign antigens [16,17]. The methanolic extract of this plant possesses antimicrobial activity against different species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms [18] as well as DNA protective activities [19]. Anti-fertility activity of a traditional contraceptive pill comprising A. catechu has also been reported [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. Methods: The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. Results: The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu showed IC50 values of 1.8 ± 0.18 μg/ml and 3.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml, respectively in cell-free virus based assay using TZM-bl cells and HIV-1NL4.3 (X-4 tropic). In the above assay, n-butanol fraction exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC50 of 1.7 ± 0.12 μg/ml. The n-butanol fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition against HIV-1NL4.3 infection of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and against HIV-1BaL(R-5-tropic) as well as two different primary viral isolates of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. The n-butanol fraction demonstrates a potent inhibitory activity against the viral protease (IC50 = 12.9 μg/ml), but not reverse transcriptase or integrase. Further, in Alu-PCR no effect on viral integration was observed. The n-butanol fraction interfered with the Tat-mediated Long Terminal Repeat transactivation in TZM-bl cells, mRNA quantitation (qRT-PCR) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The n-butanol fraction did not cause an enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Vk2/E6E7 cells. Additionally, no adverse effects were observed to the monolayer formed by the Caco-2 and HEC-1A epithelial cells. Conclusions: The results presented here show a potential anti-HIV-1 activity of A. catechu mediated by the inhibition of the functions of the viral protein and Tat.
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    • "1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical (OH·) scavenging activity, reducing power assay and chelation power on ferrous (Fe2+) ions on all extracts was performed essentially as described earlier [17], with a few modifications for plate reader analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2 (-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e69112. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069112 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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