Antioxidant activity and protective effect against plasmid DNA strand scission of leaf, bark, and heartwood extracts from Acacia catechu.

Div of Biochemistry and Plant Physiology, SK Univ of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha 180 009, Jammu, India.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.78). 08/2011; 76(7):C959-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02284.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The antioxidant activity of methanol extract/fractions of leaf, bark, and heartwood of Acacia catechu was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical, superoxide and hydroxyl radical, reducing power, metal ion chelation, as well as hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission. The leaf, bark, and heartwood powder was extracted in methanol and the lyophilized methanol extract was fractionated with different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. The results indicate that ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood has the highest antioxidant capacities, presenting lower EC(50) values particularly in free radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals (4.76 ± 0.14 μg/mL), superoxide anions (26.21 ± 0.79 μg/mL), and hydroxyl radicals (33.69 ± 1.42 μg/mL), in direct assay systems. Reducing power was also highest in ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood (EC(50) of 79.05 ± 1.02 μg/mL). As for the chelating power on ferrous ions, leaf extract was more effective than bark and heartwood extracts. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of heartwood significantly protected pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The present investigation suggests that the three organs of A. catechu differ significantly in their antioxidant potential as seen in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay, metal ion chelating assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Further, our results showed that crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of heartwood of A. catechu might have a good potential as a source for natural health products due to its antioxidant and DNA protective activities.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. Methods: The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. Results: The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu showed IC 50 values of 1.8 ± 0.18 μg/ml and 3.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml, respectively in cell-free virus based assay using TZM-bl cells and HIV-1 NL4.3 (X-4 tropic). In the above assay, n-butanol fraction exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC 50 of 1.7 ± 0.12 μg/ml. The n-butanol fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition against HIV-1 NL4.3 infection of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and against HIV-1 BaL (R-5-tropic) as well as two different primary viral isolates of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. The n-butanol fraction demonstrates a potent inhibitory activity against the viral protease (IC 50 = 12.9 μg/ml), but not reverse transcriptase or integrase. Further, in Alu-PCR no effect on viral integration was observed. The n-butanol fraction interfered with the Tat-mediated Long Terminal Repeat transactivation in TZM-bl cells, mRNA quantitation (qRT-PCR) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The n-butanol fraction did not cause an enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Vk2/E6E7 cells. Additionally, no adverse effects were observed to the monolayer formed by the Caco-2 and HEC-1A epithelial cells.
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Jun 2, 2014

Sanjay Guleria