Article

Health effects associated with geographical area of residence during the 1991 Gulf War: a comparative health study of Iraqi soldiers and civilians.

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
U.S. Army Medical Department journal 01/2011;
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although Iraqis sustained the gravest exposure conditions during the 1991 Gulf War (GW), little is known about the possible relationship between environmental exposures during the GW and long-term health in Iraqis.
To study the relationship between distance from Kuwait during the GW and somatic health among Iraqi Soldiers vs civilians.
A survey questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 742 GW veterans and 413 civilians in Iraq. The odds ratios were calculated for somatic disorders as a function of distance from Kuwait during the GW, as well as a self-reported environmental exposure index.
Soldiers reported a significantly higher prevalence of somatic disorders as compared to civilians. Soldiers closest to Kuwait reported significantly more somatic disorders as compared to Soldiers deployed further away from Kuwait.
Iraqi GW veterans are at an increased risk of numerous somatic disorders. Soldiers are at an increased risk compared to civilians, suggesting that war-associated exposures are of etiologic relevance.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Bengt Arnetz, Sep 30, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea mediates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic and somatic disorders and its implications for self-rated health (SRH) among Iraqi immigrants in the United States. Methods A random sample of immigrants who had left Iraq before the 1991 Gulf War (n = 145) or after (n = 205) and are residing in metropolitan Detroit responded to a structured interview covering questions on sociodemographics, premigration trauma, SRH, physician-diagnosed and -treated obstructive sleep apnea, somatic disorders, and psychosomatic disorders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between premigration trauma scores and health, as well as to explore mediating pathways between PTSD, obstructive sleep apnea, and health. Results The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among post-Gulf Warimmigrants (30.2%) was significantly higher than among pre-Gulf War immigrants (0.7%; p < .001). Premigration trauma scores were positively associated with depression and PTSD. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which obstructive sleep apnea mediated the relationship between PTSD and psychosomatic and somatic disorders. Premigration trauma also related directly to SRH. Conclusions Part of the PTSD-associated adverse health effects observed in Iraqi immigrants is mediated by obstructive sleep apnea. Because sleep apnea in the current study is based on medical history and current treatment, there is a need for future confirmatory polysomnographic studies.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 09/2012; 74(8):824-31. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826bf1ec · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim was to evaluate the impact of the area of residence on lung capacity as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among the people of Fujairah, UAE. Settings and Design: After taking the permission from the manager of Fujairah City Center to carry out the study in the mall, COPD assessment test (CAT) and Vitalograph COPD-6 screening device were used for patient evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty people were randomly selected based on specifi c inclusion and exclusion criteria to undergo lung examination using Vitalograph COPD-6 Screening device and CAT questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis and statistical testing. The signifi cance was tested using sample t-test of independent variables for equality of means (Levene's test for equality of variance). Results: Both genders (age mean = 31.25 years old) regardless of race and ethnicity were included in the study; the male to female ratio was 3:1. Among male smokers, 88% from those who live in the city center area had COPD score (COPDS) <10, while in the area near the port 59% had COPDS <10. On the other hand, the mean of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV ratio was much lower among male smokers and non-smokers who live in the port area than those who live in the center of the city. Conclusion: Further focused and follow-up studies are needed to measure the seriousness of air pollution on the respiratory system in the Gulf region.
    Journal of Young Pharmacists 04/2014; 6(2). DOI:10.5530/jyp.2014.2.5