Regulation of the MDM2-P53 pathway and tumor growth by PICT1 via nucleolar RPL11.
ABSTRACT PICT1 (also known as GLTSCR2) is considered a tumor suppressor because it stabilizes phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), but individuals with oligodendrogliomas lacking chromosome 19q13, where PICT1 is located, have better prognoses than other oligodendroglioma patients. To clarify the function of PICT1, we generated Pict1-deficient mice and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Pict1 is a nucleolar protein essential for embryogenesis and ES cell survival. Even without DNA damage, Pict1 loss led to p53-dependent arrest of cell cycle phase G(1) and apoptosis. Pict1-deficient cells accumulated p53, owing to impaired Mdm2 function. Pict1 binds Rpl11, and Rpl11 is released from nucleoli in the absence of Pict1. In Pict1-deficient cells, increased binding of Rpl11 to Mdm2 blocks Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of p53. In human cancer, individuals whose tumors express less PICT1 have better prognoses. When PICT1 is depleted in tumor cells with intact P53 signaling, the cells grow more slowly and accumulate P53. Thus, PICT1 is a potent regulator of the MDM2-P53 pathway and promotes tumor progression by retaining RPL11 in the nucleolus.
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ABSTRACT: Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (rDNA) transcription by RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) drives cell growth and underlies nucleolar structure and function, indirectly coordinating many fundamental cellular processes. The importance of keeping rDNA transcription under tight control is reflected by the fact that deranged Pol I transcription is a feature of cancer and other human disorders. In this review, we discuss multiple aspects of rDNA function including the relationship between Pol I transcription and proliferative capacity, the role of Pol I transcription in mediating nucleolar structure and integrity, and rDNA/nucleolar interactions with the genome and their influence on heterochromatin and global genome stability. Furthermore, we discuss how perturbations in the structure of the rDNA loci might contribute to human disease, in some cases independent of effects on ribosome biogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most life-threatening diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of malignant cells. The tumor suppressor p53 is the master regulator of tumor cell growth and proliferation. In response to various stress signals, p53 can be activated and transcriptionally induces a myriad of target genes, including both protein-encoding and non-coding genes, controlling cell cycle progression, DNA repair, senescence, apoptosis, autophagy and metabolism of tumor cells. However, around 50% of human cancers harbor mutant p53 and, in the majority of the remaining cancers, p53 is inactivated through multiple mechanisms. Herein, we review the recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of p53 signaling, particularly the newly identified ribosomal stress-p53 pathway, and the development of chemotherapeutics via activating wild-type p53 or restoring mutant p53 functions in cancer. A full understanding of p53 regulation will aid the development of effective cancer treatments.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2014; 15(12):22109-22127. DOI:10.3390/ijms151222109 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PICT1 is a key regulator of the MDM2-TP53 pathway. High mRNA expression levels of PICT1 are associated with poor prognosis in several cancers with wild-type TP53. In this study, we identified the PICT1 protein expression profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type TP53 in the nucleolus and cytoplasm, and revealed the relationship between PICT1 expression and patient clinicopathological factors. PICT1 expression in the tumor cells of 96 NSCLC patients with wild-type TP53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Forty-three of 96 (44.8%) NSCLC samples were positive for nucleolar PICT1, while 40/96 (41.7%) NSCLC samples were positive for cytoplasmic PICT1. There was no correlation between nucleolar PICT1 expression and clinicopathological factors. However, cytoplasmic PICT1 expression was significantly correlated with sex, smoking history, differentiation, lymphatic invasion and pathological stage. In multivariate analysis, lymphatic invasion was significantly associated with cytoplasmic PICT1 expression (hazard ratio: 5.02, P = 0.026). We scrutinized PICT1 expression in samples of NSCLC with wild-type TP53, and showed a correlation between cytoplasmic PICT1 expression and several clinicopathological factors in these patients. Our results indicate that cytoplasmic PICT1 expression is a poor prognostic factor and is associated with tumor progression via lymphatic invasion in these patients.