To estimate the number of unintended pregnancies averted through the provision of family planning services to low income women in Family PACT, California's Medicaid waiver program.
We use a Markov model to estimate the number of pregnancies in the absence of Family PACT based on the contraceptive method mix used before program enrollment, and pregnancies in the presence of the program, based on method dispensing claims.
Nearly 1 million (998,084) women were provided with contraceptives in Family PACT in 2007. Contraceptive services averted over an estimated 286,700 unintended pregnancies including 122,000 abortions, 133,000 unintended births, and over 40,000 births among teens.
This conservative measure of the effect of Family PACT on unintended pregnancies indicates the benefit of expanding access to contraceptive services, an example for other states considering expanding access to family planning services through a state plan amendment under health care reform.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent to which racial and ethnic differences in method choice are associated with financial barriers is unclear. Understanding these associations may provide insight into how to address racial and ethnic disparities in unintended pregnancy.
Claims data from the California Family PACT program, which provides free family planning services to low-income residents, were used to determine the proportions of women receiving each type of contraceptive method in 2001-2007. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associations between women's race and ethnicity and the primary contraceptive method they received in 2007.
Compared with white women, blacks and Latinas were less likely to receive oral contraceptives (odds ratios, 0.4 and 0.6, respectively) and the contraceptive ring (0.7 and 0.5), and more likely to receive the injectable (1.6 and 1.4) and the patch (1.6 and 2.3). Black women were less likely than whites to receive the IUD (0.5), but more likely to receive barrier methods and emergency contraceptive pills (2.6); associations were similar, though weaker, for Latinas. Racial and ethnic disparities in receipt of effective methods declined between 2001 and 2005, largely because receipt of the patch (which was introduced in 2002) was higher among minority than white women.
Although Family PACT eliminates financial barriers to method choice, the methods women received differed substantially by race and ethnicity in this low-income population. The reduction in racial and ethnic disparities following introduction of the patch suggests that methods with novel characteristics may increase acceptability of contraceptives among minority women.
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 09/2011; 43(3):181-7. DOI:10.1363/4318111 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : To promote the use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (intrauterine devices [IUDs] and implants) and provide contraception at no cost to a large cohort of participants in an effort to reduce unintended pregnancies in our region.
: We enrolled 9,256 adolescents and women at risk for unintended pregnancy into the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study of adolescents and women desiring reversible contraceptive methods. Participants were recruited from the two abortion facilities in the St. Louis region and through provider referral, advertisements, and word of mouth. Contraceptive counseling included all reversible methods but emphasized the superior effectiveness of LARC methods (IUDs and implants). All participants received the reversible contraceptive method of their choice at no cost. We analyzed abortion rates, the percentage of abortions that were repeat abortions, and teenage births.
: We observed a significant reduction in the percentage of abortions that were repeat abortions in the St. Louis region compared with Kansas City and nonmetropolitan Missouri (P<.001). Abortion rates in the CHOICE cohort were less than half the regional and national rates (P<.001). The rate of teenage birth within the CHOICE cohort was 6.3 per 1,000, compared with the U.S. rate of 34.3 per 1,000.
: We noted a clinically and statistically significant reduction in abortion rates, repeat abortions, and teenage birth rates. Unintended pregnancies may be reduced by providing no-cost contraception and promoting the most effective contraceptive methods.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2012; 120(6):1291-7. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e318273eb56 · 5.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the literature focused on socioeconomic influences on teen childbearing and suggested directions for future research and practice related to this important indicator of teen sexual health.
We conducted an electronic search of Medline, ERIC, PsychLit, and Sociological Abstracts databases for articles published from January 1995 to November 2011. Selected articles from peer-reviewed journals included original quantitative analyses addressing socioeconomic influences on first birth among teen women in the U.S. Articles were abstracted for key information, ranked for quality according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines, assessed for bias, and synthesized.
We selected articles with a range of observational study designs. Risk for bias varied across studies. All 12 studies that considered socioeconomic factors as influences on teen childbearing (vs. moderators or mediators of other effects) reported at least one statistically significant association relating low socioeconomic status, underemployment, low income, low education levels, neighborhood disadvantage, neighborhood physical disorder, or neighborhood-level income inequality to teen birth. Few reports included any associations contradicting this pattern.
This review suggests that unfavorable socioeconomic conditions experienced at the community and family levels contribute to the high teen birth rate in the U.S. Future research into social determinants of sexual health should include multiple levels of measurement whenever possible. Root causes of teen childbearing should be evaluated in various populations and contexts. Interventions that address socioeconomic influences at multiple levels could positively affect large numbers of teens and help eliminate disparities in teen childbearing.
Public Health Reports 03/2013; 128 Suppl 1:5-22. · 1.55 Impact Factor
B. Darney, B. Saavedra-Avendano, Z. Andrade-Romo, L. Chavira-Razo, M. Rodriguez
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