Estimating the Fertility Effect of Expansions of Publicly Funded Family Planning Services in California
ABSTRACT To estimate the number of unintended pregnancies averted through the provision of family planning services to low income women in Family PACT, California's Medicaid waiver program.
We use a Markov model to estimate the number of pregnancies in the absence of Family PACT based on the contraceptive method mix used before program enrollment, and pregnancies in the presence of the program, based on method dispensing claims.
Nearly 1 million (998,084) women were provided with contraceptives in Family PACT in 2007. Contraceptive services averted over an estimated 286,700 unintended pregnancies including 122,000 abortions, 133,000 unintended births, and over 40,000 births among teens.
This conservative measure of the effect of Family PACT on unintended pregnancies indicates the benefit of expanding access to contraceptive services, an example for other states considering expanding access to family planning services through a state plan amendment under health care reform.
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ABSTRACT: Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent.Milbank Quarterly 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/1468-0009.12080 · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the association of adolescent birthrates (ABRs) with access to and receipt of publicly funded family planning services in California counties provided through 2 state programs: Medi-Cal, California's Medicaid program, and the Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) program. Methods. Our key data sources included the California Health Interview Survey and California Women's Health Survey, Medi-Cal and Family PACT claims data, and the Birth Statistical Master File. We constructed a linear regression analysis measuring the relationship of access to and receipt of family planning services with ABRs when controlling for counties' select covariates. Results. The regression analysis indicated that a higher access rate to Family PACT in a county was associated with a lower ABR (B = -0.19; P < .01) when controlling for unemployment rate, percentage of foreign-born adolescents, and percentage of adult low-income births. Conclusions. Efforts to reduce ABRs, specifically in counties that had persistently high rates are critical to achieving a healthy future for the state and the nation. Family PACT played a crucial role in helping adolescents avoid unintended and early childbearing. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 19, 2013: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301454).American Journal of Public Health 12/2013; DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301454 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The knowledge of important biopsychosocial factors linking women's reproductive health and mental health is increasing. This review focuses on psychological aspects of contraception, unintended pregnancy, and abortion because these are common reproductive health experiences in U.S. women's lives. This review addresses the mental-health antecedents and consequences of these experiences, mostly focusing on depression and depressive symptoms before and after unintended pregnancy and contraception. As mental-health antecedents, depressive symptoms predict contraceptive behaviors that lead to unintended pregnancy, and mental-health disorders have been associated with having subsequent abortions. In examining the mental-health consequences, most sound research does not find abortion or contraceptive use to cause mental-health problems. Consequently, evidence does not support policies based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. Nevertheless, the abortion-care setting may be a place to integrate mental-health services. In contrast, women who have births resulting from unintended pregnancies may be at higher risk of postpartum depression. Social policies (e.g., paid maternity leave, subsidized child care) may protect women from mental-health problems and stress of unplanned children interrupting employment, education, and pre-existing family care responsibilities.10/2014; 1(1):239-247. DOI:10.1177/2372732214549328