Antimicrobial resistance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in 3 California EDs

Department of Emergency Medicine, Alameda County Medical Center-Highland Campus, Oakland, CA 94602, USA.
The American journal of emergency medicine (Impact Factor: 1.15). 07/2011; 30(6):942-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.05.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increased trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistance has led to changes in empiric treatment of female urinary tract infections (UTI) in the emergency department (ED), particularly increased use of fluoroquinolones (Acad Emerg Med.2009;16(6):500-507). Whether prescribing changes have affected susceptibility in uropathogens is unclear. Using narrow-spectrum agents and therapy tailored to local susceptibilities remain important goals.
The primary goal of this study is to characterize the susceptibility patterns of uropathogens among ambulatory female ED patients with UTI. Its secondary goal is to identify demographic or clinical factors predictive of resistance to narrow-spectrum agents.
This was a cross-sectional study of women with suspected UTI referred to a trial of computer kiosk-aided treatment of UTI in 3 Northern California EDs. Demographic and clinical data were gathered from the kiosk and chart, and features associated with resistance were identified by bivariate and multivariable regression analysis.
Two hundred eighty-three participants, aged 15 to 84 years, were diagnosed with UTI and cultured. One hundred thirty-five (48%) of cultures were positive, with full susceptibilities reported (81% Escherichia coli). Only 2 isolates (1.5%) were fluoroquinolone resistant. Resistance to TMP/SMX was 18%, to nitrofurantoin 5%, and to cefazolin 4%. Seventy-four percent were sensitive to all 3 narrow-spectrum agents. Resistance to narrow-spectrum agents did not vary significantly by diagnosis, age, recent UTI, or any clinical or demographic factors; but overall, there was a trend toward lower resistance rates in our population than in our hospitals' published antibiograms.
In our population of ambulatory female ED patients, resistance to TMP/SMX is just below the 20% threshold that the Infectious Disease Society of America recommends for continued empiric use (Clin Infect Dis.1999;29(4):745-758, Clin Infect Dis.2011;52(5):e103-120), whereas resistance to other narrow-spectrum agents, such as nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, may be lower than published antibiograms for our sites. Fluoroquinolone resistance remains very low.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus epidermidis is currently the most frequent pathogen of opportunistic and nosocomial infections worldwide. Most cases of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections are associated with indwelling medical devices and/or immunocompromised conditions. Community-acquired urinary tract infections are rare, particularly among pediatric populations, and clinicians often do not consider Staphylococcus epidermidis as a uropathogen. A previously healthy Japanese boy developed pyelonephritis caused by Enterococcus faecalis at 10 months of age. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with severe bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (right side grade V, left side grade III), and was administered trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as the prophylaxis. At 18 months of age, he presented with fever. Gram staining of urine obtained through catheterization revealed gram-positive cocci. We suspected pyelonephritis caused by enterococci, and administered oral fluoroquinolone empirically. The fever promptly resolved, and eventually, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected at significant levels in the urine. Thus, our final diagnosis was pyelonephritis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Our case indicated that even immunocompetent children without a urinary catheter can develop Staphylococcus epidermidis pyelonephritis. Staphylococcus epidermidis can be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as sample contamination in community-acquired urinary tract infections. Therefore, when Gram staining of appropriately obtained urine samples reveals gram-positive cocci, clinicians should take into consideration not only the possibility of enterococci but also staphylococci, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, particularly in children with urinary abnormalities and/or those receiving continuous antibiotic prophylaxis.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 12/2014; 8(1):415. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-415
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim. To demonstrate the prevalence of isolated organisms in urinary/respiratory tract infections and their antibiotic susceptibilities in a tertiary care center. Methods and Material. Between January 2008 and January 2010, patients referring to the clinic of cardiology or those admitted to the cardiac wards were enrolled in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Urine and sputum sampling was done for all the patients and the specimens underwent microbiologic examination and, in case of isolation of microorganism, antibiotic disk diffusion test was performed. Results. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most prevalent isolated organism in-hospital and community-acquired UTIs and was highly resistant to cephalothin in all the samples followed by cotrimoxazole, and ceftriaxone. It revealed high sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, and nitrofurantoin. Acinetobacter constituted the most prevalent organism isolated from respiratory secretions and represented the highest resistance to ceftriaxone and the greatest sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions. E. coli and Acinetobacter remain the most common uropathogenic and respiratory organisms, respectively. However, their increasing resistance to wide-spectrum imipenem, meropenem, and vancomycin is a major concern.
    International Journal of Microbiology 06/2014; 2014:682304. DOI:10.1155/2014/682304
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Different studies have indicated that urinary tract infections frequently occur in both community and hospital environments and are of the most common bacterial infections in humans. the outcomes of urinary tract infections are increased hospitalization, increased direct patient costs and mortality. In Dessie, the prevalence of the commmon pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility pattern is not well studied sofar. Thus, the aim of this study is to address these gaps in the study area.
    BMC Research Notes 10/2014; 7(1):687. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-687