Article

A reduced-calorie dietary pattern including a daily sweet snack promotes body weight reduction and body composition improvements in premenopausal women who are overweight and obese: a pilot study.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 08/2011; 111(8):1198-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reduced-calorie diets are difficult to follow because they often require elimination of certain foods, leading to poor compliance and limited success. However, a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet has the potential to accommodate a daily snack without exceeding energy requirements, even during weight loss. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or a non-chocolate snack on anthropometric and body composition measurements. In a randomized clinical trial, 26 overweight and obese (body mass index ≥25 to ≤43) premenopausal women were assigned to a reduced-calorie diet that included either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack (n=13 per group) for 18 weeks. At baseline and end of study, body weight and waist and hip circumferences were measured along with fat mass, lean mass, and body fat percentage by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from 4-day food records. Within- and between-group changes from baseline were analyzed using paired t tests and independent t tests, respectively. Women in both snack groups reduced estimated daily energy intake (P<0.001). Women in both the dark chocolate snack and non-chocolate snack groups, respectively, experienced decreases (P<0.001) in body weight (-5.1 vs -5.1 kg), hip circumference (-5.8 vs -5.4 cm), waist circumference (-5.7 vs -3.5 cm), fat mass (-3.9 vs -3.6 kg), and body fat percentage (-3.4% vs -3.1%), with no change in lean mass. Improvements in anthropometric and body composition measurements among overweight and obese premenopausal women can be achieved with a reduced-calorie diet including either a daily dark chocolate snack or non-chocolate snack.

0 Followers
 · 
103 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean±SD, age=35.9±5.8 y; weight=84.4±13.1 kg; body mass index (BMI)=31.0±4.3 kg/m2]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001), waist circumference (P<0.001), hip circumference (P<0.0001) and BF% (P<0.0001). Effect of increase in CER on change in BMI, hip circumference and BF% was moderated by increase in disihibition (all P<0.05). Results suggest that strategies that target CER and disinhibition should be emphasized in programs proposed to treat and prevent obesity.
    Appetite 01/2015; 87. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.12.230 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and aims Cocoa flavanols are recognized by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and results Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26±5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59±2.33 kg/m2] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4g of cocoa extract (645.3mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p<0.05) anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and blood biochemical measurements. Oxidized LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), showed a higher reduction (p=0.030) in the cocoa group. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels decreased only in the cocoa supplemented group (p=0.007). Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decreased significantly in both groups, while Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) did not present differences after the 4 weeks of intervention. Interestingly, cocoa intake showed a different effect by gender, presenting more beneficial effects in men. Conclusions The consumption of cocoa extract as part of ready-to-eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.09.017 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity remains a major public health challenge, and its prevalence is dramatically increasing. Diet and exercise are typically recommended to prevent and manage obesity; however, the results are often conflicting. Polyphenols, a class of phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce the risk factors for diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases, are recently suggested as complementary agents in the management of obesity through several mechanisms such as decreasing fat absorption and/or fat synthesis. Dark chocolate, a high source of polyphenols, and flavanols in particular, has lately received attention for its possible role in modulating obesity because of its potential effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as on satiety. This outcome was investigated in animal models of obesity, cell cultures and few human observational and clinical studies. The research undertaken to date has shown promising results, with the possible implication of cocoa/dark chocolate in the modulation of obesity and body weight through several mechanisms including decreasing the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, reducing the digestion and absorption of fats and carbohydrates and increasing satiety. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 06/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5062 · 2.40 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from