Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul National University Research Park, Kwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 08/2011; 17(8):1349-54. DOI: 10.3201/eid1708.101515
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960-2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and underreported in Africa because of low awareness by health care providers, other prevalent febrile illnesses, and lack of diagnostic testing and systematic surveillance. Other hypotheses to explain low reported numbers of cases include cross-protection from other endemic flavivirus infections, genetic host factors protecting against infection or disease, and low vector competence and transmission efficiency. Population-based studies of febrile illness are needed to determine the epidemiology and true incidence of dengue in Africa.

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Available from: Ananda Amarasinghe, Sep 19, 2014
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    • "Dengue NS1 is produced during viral replication and can be detected shortly after dengue infection (1–9 days after onset of fever) prior to IgM seroconversion positioning this antigen as an ideal marker for diagnosis of acute dengue infection (Kassim et al., 2011). Although the first isolated case of dengue was in Nigeria in the 1960s (Amarasinghe et al., 2011; Carey et al., 1971), dengue is not a reportable disease with most cases often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed as malaria or labeled as fever of unknown cause. The unfortunate consequence is the persistent over prescription of anti-malarias and antibiotics. "
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among febrile patients positive or negative for malaria in Ibadan, Nigeria. Dengue IgG and NS1 seroprevalence of 73% and 35% respectively was observed, and 43% of those with malaria had acute dengue infection (NS1 determination). On the other hand, all participants with malaria were IgG dengue seropositive consistent with the endemicity of both arthropod-borne infections in the region. These data indicate that dengue is emerging as a major cause of fever in Nigeria.
    Virus Research 07/2014; 191. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.07.023 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "Multiple other circulating arboviruses (Diallo et al., 2005). Niger – Ae. aegypti present (Amarasinghe et al., 2011). Multiple arboviruses present (Mariner et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Presumptive treatment of febrile illness patients for malaria remains the norm in endemic areas of West Africa, and "malaria" remains the top source of health facility outpatient visits in many West African nations. Many other febrile illnesses, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, share a similar symptomatology as malaria and are routinely misdiagnosed as such; yet growing evidence suggests that much of the burden of febrile illness is often not attributable to malaria. Dengue fever is one of several viral diseases with symptoms similar to malaria, and the combination of rapid globalization, the long-standing presence of Aedes mosquitoes, case reports from travelers, and recent seroprevalence surveys all implicate West Africa as an emerging front for dengue surveillance and control. This paper integrates recent vector ecology, public health, and clinical medicine literature about dengue in West Africa across community, regional, and global geographic scales. We present a holistic argument for greater attention to dengue fever surveillance in West Africa and renew the call for improving differential diagnosis of febrile illness patients in the region.
    Acta tropica 03/2014; 134. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.02.017 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    • "The global prevalence of dengue has increased drastically over the past few years [1] . The disease is now present in more than one hundred countries [2] in Africa [3] , the Americas [4] , Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific [5] and the Middle East [6] . Besides imported cases occurrence in this region, recently, many cases of indigenous transmission of dengue virus have been reported in several countries including Saudi Arabia [7] . "
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 06/2012;
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