What is the evidence? Intra-abdominal administration of antimicrobial drugs to prevent peritonitis or wound infection in cattle after abdominal surgery.

Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 08/2011; 239(3):314-6. DOI: 10.2460/javma.239.3.314
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma ampicillin concentrations were determined in an eight-ways crossover trial involving six ruminant calves, which were treated intravenously (i.v.) with sodium ampicillin at 15.5 mg/kg and intramuscularly (i.m.) with five different ampicillin trihydrate or ampicillin anhydrate formulations at 7.7 mg/kg. The mean plasma concentration-time curve (Cp) after intravenous ampicillin sodium administration was described biexponentially, as: Cp = 38.8 e -0.0268t + 0.45 e -0.0058t. Intramuscular injection, into the lateral neck, of Ampikel-20 and Polyflex resulted in 100 per cent bioavailabilities within 12 h post injection (p.i.), but the biological half-lives (t1/2) were different, being 2.1 and 3.8 h, respectively. Ampikel-20 produced the highest peak plasma drug concentrations (mean C max :4.8 microgram ampicillin/ml). After intramuscular injection of Penbritin the mean bioavailability for the first 12 h p.i. was 63 per cent, the mean t1/2 was 5.9 h, and the mean Cmax was 1.8 microgram/ml. Treatment with Albipen and Duphacillin resulted in low plasma ampicillin levels, which were maintained for 3 to 6 days p.i., limited bioavailability during the first 12 h p.i., and a mean t1/2 of 22.2 and 11.9 h, respectively. Plasma concentrations of ampicillin from four hours onwards after i.m. and s.c. administration of Ampikel-20 at a dose level of 15.5 mg/kg were similar. The duration of potentially therapeutic plasma ampicillin concentrations after administration of each formulation is presented. Pre-slaughter withdrawal times for diseased calves are suggested for the different formulations studied.
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    ABSTRACT: Wound infection and postoperative performance after a single intra-abdominal administration of 9 g sodium ampicillin in cows operated on for caecal dilatation or torsion (n = 33) were evaluated. In the 25 animals that left the clinic in good health (76% short-term survival), no wound infection occurred. Postoperative performance was normal in 21 of these animals (84%). The figures for short-term survival and postoperative performance are comparable to those from a retrospective study of 169 animals operated on between 1985 and 1990. Single intra-abdominal administration of sodium ampicillin during surgery provides good protection against infection without negative effects on the postoperative performance.
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    ABSTRACT: The disposition of an aqueous suspension of procaine penicillin G (300,000 U/mL) was studied in feedlot steers. Four groups of three steers were used. Steers in groups 1 and 2 received procaine penicillin G once daily for 5 days intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 24,000 U/kg (group 1) or of 66,000 U/kg (group 2). The injection on the last day was administered in the gluteal muscle. Steers in group 3 (i.m. neck injection) and group 4 [subcutaneous (s.c.) injection] each received a single dose of procaine penicillin G at a dose of 66,000 U/kg. From every animal, after the last injection in groups 1 and 2 and following the single injection in groups 3 and 4, a series of blood samples was taken at fixed time intervals. The plasma from these samples was analysed for penicillin G by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay in order to determine the disposition of penicillin. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the curve (AUC) were significantly different between groups 1 and 2, but we found no difference in the disappearance rate constant between these two groups. Group 4 single s.c. injections produced a lower mean Cmax (1.85 +/- 0.27 microgram/mL) than the mean Cmax (4.24 +/- 1.08 micrograms/mL) produced in group 3 by i.m. injections into the neck muscle or the mean Cmax (2.63 +/- 0.27 microgram/mL) produced in group 2 by i.m. injections into the gluteal muscle. However the mean Cmax produced by i.m. injections into the neck muscles (group 3) was higher than the mean Cmax produced by i.m. injections into the gluteal muscle (group 2). Additionally, the disappearance t1/2 was longer (18.08 h) in group 4 following the s.c. injection and shorter (8.85 h) in group 3 following the i.m. neck injection, than the t1/2 following administration of the same dose i.m. into the gluteal muscle (15.96 h) in group 2. In this study, when procaine penicillin G was injected into the gluteal muscle, doses of 66,000 U/kg were necessary to produce plasma concentrations that were above a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for penicillin G of 1.0 microgram/mL as compared to doses of 24,000 U/kg.
    Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 10/1993; 16(3):317-27. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2885.1993.tb00178.x · 1.19 Impact Factor