Anatomic mechanisms for splenic injury during colorectal surgery
ABSTRACT Intraoperative iatrogenic splenic injury during colorectal surgery is rare but may cause significant morbidity. We aimed to describe the anatomic mechanisms of iatrogenic injury to the spleen during colonic surgery. All adult surgical patients who sustained a splenic injury during colectomy at our institution from 1992 to 2007 were retrospectively identified. The operative and pathologic reports were reviewed, and anatomic details of the injuries were collected. Results are reported as a proportion or median, with range reported in brackets. Of 13,897 colectomies, 71 splenic injuries among 58 patients were identified. Splenic flexure colonic mobilization occurred in 53 (91%) of these patients. The median number of tears was 1 (1-3). The average length of tear was 4.59 cm. The distribution of injury location on the spleen was 24 (34%) inferior, 14 (20%) hilar, 3 (4%) posterior, 2 (3%) lateral, and 1 (1%) superior. Three (4%) patients suffered from splenic rupture. The location of 24 (34%) injuries was not described. Capsular tears were the cause of splenic injury in 55 (95%) patients. Intraoperative splenic injury ultimately resulted in splenectomy in 44 (76%) patients. Splenic injury was a delayed finding requiring reoperation in 4 (7%) patients. The primary mechanism of intraoperative splenic injury during colectomy is capsular tears and lacerations secondary to misplaced traction and tension on the spleen during colonic mobilization. Techniques to lessen these forces may decrease the number of injuries and subsequent splenectomy.
- Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 06/2013; 77(6):937–937.e5. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2013.04.180 · 5.37 Impact Factor
- Endoscopy 01/2014; 46(S 01):E15. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1359161 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Nearly half of all incidental splenectomies caused by iatrogenic splenic injury occur during colorectal surgery. This study evaluates factors associated with incidental splenic procedures during colorectal surgery and their impact on short-term outcomes using a nationwide database. Methods: Patients who underwent colorectal resections between 2005 and 2012 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database according to Current Procedural Terminology codes. Patients were classified into two groups based on whether they underwent a concurrent incidental splenic procedure at the time of the colorectal procedure. All splenic procedures except a preoperatively intended splenectomy performed in conjunction with colon or rectal resections were considered as incidental. Perioperative and short-term (30 day) outcomes were compared between the groups. Results: In total, 93633 patients who underwent colon and/or rectal resection were identified. Among these, 215 patients had incidental splenic procedures (153 open splenectomy, 17 laparoscopic splenectomy, 36 splenorraphy, and 9 partial splenectomy). Open colorectal resections were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of incidental splenic procedures (OR 6.58, p < 0.001) compared to laparoscopic surgery. Incidental splenic procedures were associated with increased length of total hospital stay (OR 1.25, p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation dependency (OR 1.62, p = 0.02), transfusion requirement (OR: 3.84, p < 0.001), re-operation requirement (OR 1.7, p = 0.005), and sepsis (OR: 2.03, p = 0.001). Short-term advantages of splenic salvage (splenorraphy or partial splenectomy) included shorter length of total hospital stay (p = 0.001) and decreased need for re-operation (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Incidental splenic procedures during colorectal resections are associated with worse short-term outcomes. Use of the laparoscopic technique decreases the need for incidental splenic procedures.Surgical Endoscopy 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00464-014-3774-5 · 3.26 Impact Factor