Metoprolol impairs resistance artery function in mice

Department of Anesthesia, St. Michael's Hospital, Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, University of Toronto, Canada.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 07/2011; 111(4):1125-33. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01340.2010
Source: PubMed


Acute β-blockade with metoprolol has been associated with increased mortality by undefined mechanisms. Since metoprolol is a relatively high affinity blocker of β(2)-adrenoreceptors, we hypothesized that some of the increased mortality associated with its use may be due to its abrogation of β(2)-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasodilation of microvessels in different vascular beds. Cardiac output (CO; pressure volume loops), mean arterial pressure (MAP), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF; laser Doppler), and microvascular brain tissue Po(2) (G2 oxyphor) were measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute treatment with metoprolol (3 mg/kg iv). The vasodilatory dose responses to β-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol and clenbuterol), and the myogenic response, were assessed in isolated mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs; ∼200-μm diameter) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs ∼150-μm diameter). Data are presented as means ± SE with statistical significance applied at P < 0.05. Metoprolol treatment did not effect MAP but reduced heart rate and stroke volume, CO, rCBF, and brain microvascular Po(2), while concurrently increasing systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for all). In isolated MRAs, metoprolol did not affect basal artery tone or the myogenic response, but it did cause a dose-dependent impairment of isoproterenol- and clenbuterol-induced vasodilation. In isolated PCAs, metoprolol (50 μM) impaired maximal vasodilation in response to isoproterenol. These data support the hypothesis that acute administration of metoprolol can reduce tissue oxygen delivery by impairing the vasodilatory response to β(2)-adrenergic agonists. This mechanism may contribute to the observed increase in mortality associated with acute administration of metoprolol in perioperative patients.

Download full-text


Available from: Darcy Lidington, Dec 09, 2014
1 Follower
21 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Anemia in both acute and chronic conditions is associated with an increased risk of organ injury (brain, heart, kidney) and mortality. Thus, anemia is not "safe". Impairment of tissue oxygen delivery likely contributes as a central mechanism; however, the existing treatments for anemia (i.e., transfusion, erythropoiesis stimulating agents, blood substitutes) have not produced a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes despite their efficacy to increase blood oxygen content. Indeed, transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has been attributed to increase mortality in non-bleeding patients. Thus, the pathophysiology of anemia-induced morbidity and mortality and its treatments are complex and incompletely understood. New knowledge continues to emerge regarding the cellular mechanisms that maintain oxygen homeostasis during anemia. Nevertheless, the application of this knowledge has not yet led to improvements in patient outcomes. As both anemia and transfusion are associated with increased mortality, utilization of multimodal patient blood management strategies may be effective in avoiding both of these predictors of adverse outcomes. We propose to review new strategies to avoid both anemia and transfusion with the goal of improving patient outcomes and safety. Principal findings: We reviewed several approaches that utilize patient blood management to improve patient outcomes, including 1) characterization of biomarkers of anemia-induced tissue hypoxia to identify appropriate patient-specific treatment thresholds or hemoglobin (Hb) triggers; 2) development of adequately powered clinical trials that will help to define appropriate guidelines for the perioperative treatment of anemia and optimal Hb thresholds for transfusion of RBCs in specific patient populations; and 3) demonstration that an established blood conservation program (ONTraC) can reduce RBC transfusion and its associated adverse outcomes. Conclusions: Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ongoing initiatives to treat anemia and optimize patient blood management may improve patient outcomes. A broader application of these approaches may improve the overall safety of anesthesia and surgery for patients with anemia.
    Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 01/2013; 60(2). DOI:10.1007/s12630-012-9861-y · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute β-blockade has been associated with a dose-dependent increase in adverse outcomes, including stroke and mortality. Acute blood loss contributes to the incidence of these adverse events. In an attempt to link the risks of acute blood loss and β-blockade, animal studies have demonstrated that acute β-blockade impairs cerebral perfusion after hemodilution. We expanded on these findings by testing the hypothesis that acute β-blockade with a highly β(1)-specific antagonist (nebivolol) causes dose-dependent cerebral hypoxia during hemodilution. Anesthetized rats and mice were randomized to receive vehicle or nebivolol (1.25 or 2.5 mg/kg) IV before hemodilution to a hemoglobin concentration near 60 g/L. Drug levels, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, laser Doppler), and microvascular brain Po(2) (P(Br)O(2), G2 Oxyphor) were measured before and after hemodilution. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS, and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α were assessed by Western blot. HIF-α expression was also assessed using an HIF-(ODD)-luciferase mouse model. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with significance assigned at P < 0.05, and corrected P values are reported for all post hoc analyses. Nebivolol treatment resulted in dose-specific plasma drug levels. In vehicle-treated rats, hemodilution increased CO and rCBF (P < 0.010) whereas P(Br)O(2) decreased to 45.8 ± 18.7 mm Hg (corrected P < 0.001; 95% CI 29.4-69.7). Both nebivolol doses comparably reduced HR and attenuated the CO response to hemodilution (P < 0.012). Low-dose nebivolol did not impair rCBF or further reduce P(Br)O(2) after hemodilution. High-dose nebivolol attenuated the rCBF response to hemodilution and caused a further reduction in P(Br)O(2) to 28.4 ± 9.6 mm Hg (corrected P = 0.019; 95% CI 17.4-42.7). Both nebivolol doses increased brain endothelial NOS protein levels. Brain HIF-1α, inducible NOS, and nNOS protein levels and brain HIF-luciferase activity were increased in the high-dose nebivolol group after hemodilution (P < 0.032). Our data demonstrate that nebivolol resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery after hemodilution as reflected by a decrease in brain tissue Po(2) and an increase in hypoxic protein responses (HIF-1α and nNOS). Low-dose nebivolol treatment did not result in worsened tissue hypoxia after hemodilution, despite comparable effects on HR and CO. These data support the hypothesis that acute β-blockade with a highly β(1)-specific antagonist causes a dose-dependent impairment in cerebral perfusion during hemodilution.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 03/2013; 116(3):649-62. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e318280e26d · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perioperative metoprolol increases postoperative stroke. Animal studies indicate that the mechanism may be related to attenuated β2-adrenoreceptor-mediated cerebral vasodilatation. The authors therefore conducted a cohort to study whether the highly β1-specific β-blocker (bisoprolol) was associated with a reduced risk of postoperative stroke compared with less selective β-blockers (metoprolol or atenolol). The authors conducted a single-center study on 44,092 consecutive patients with age 50 yr or more having noncardiac, nonneurologic surgery. The primary outcome was stroke within 7 days of surgery. The secondary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, postoperative myocardial injury, and stroke. A propensity score-matched cohort was created to assess the independent association between bisoprolol and less β1-selective agents metoprolol or atenolol. A secondary analysis using logistic regression, based on previously identified confounders, also compared selective β1-antagonism. Twenty-four percent (10,756) of patients were exposed to in-hospital β-blockers. A total of 88 patients (0.2%) suffered a stroke within 7 days of surgery. The matched cohort consisted of 2,462 patients, and the pairs were well matched for all variables. Bisoprolol was associated with fewer postoperative strokes than the less selective agents (odds ratio = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.91). Multivariable risk-adjustment in the β-blockers-exposed patients comparing bisoprolol with the less selective agents was associated with a similarly reduced stroke rate. The use of metoprolol and atenolol is associated with increased risks of postoperative stroke, compared with bisoprolol. These findings warrant confirmation in a pragmatic randomized trial.
    Anesthesiology 07/2013; 119(4). DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a17f12 · 5.88 Impact Factor
Show more