Does Age Impact the Obese Asthma Phenotype? Longitudinal Asthma Control, Airway Function, and Airflow Perception Among Mild Persistent Asthmatics
ABSTRACT The relationship between obesity and asthma remains inadequately defined. Studies about how obesity affects asthma control and lung function show conflicting results. Additional focus on the effect of age as a modifier may make clearer the interaction between obesity and asthma phenotype. We sought to use a diverse and well-phenotyped cohort of asthmatic patients to determine how age impacts the relationship between obesity and spirometry, peak flow variability, airflow perception, and asthma control.
The characteristics of 490 patients with mild persistent asthma taken from 2,794 study visits from a prospective trial studying strategies of step-down therapy were included in this post hoc analysis. A longitudinal mixed-effect model was used to determine if age affects the relationship between obesity and asthma characteristics, including spirometry, asthma control, airway pH, and perception of airflow changes.
The effect of obesity on asthma outcomes changes with age and gender. Obese 6- to 11-year-old children had the largest reduction in lung function but reported relatively fewer asthma symptoms than did similar nonobese asthmatics. Obese 12- to 17-year-olds showed a trend toward greater airflow obstruction and asthma symptoms compared with nonobese asthmatics. Adults in general displayed few obesity-related alterations in asthma phenotype. Female gender among 12- to 17- and 18- to 44-year-olds was associated with greater obesity-related asthma impairment.
Age is a significant effect modifier on the relationship between obesity and asthma phenotype. With increasing age, the influence of obesity on the asthma phenotype is generally reduced. The asthma phenotype may be most impacted by obesity among children and women.
ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00156819; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The relationship between weight status and asthma characteristics in children remains inadequately defined. Very little has been published on the risk of exacerbation, physician perception of severity, and the level controller treatment prescribed to underweight and obese children with asthma in a real-world setting. METHODS: We assessed the diagnostic severity, pulmonary function, exacerbation prevalence, and controller treatment level in 10,559 new asthma patients seen at one of four pediatric asthma subspecialty clinics among three BMI groups. Participants were analyzed by body mass index (BMI)-percentile based on Centers for Disease Control & Prevention classification. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between BMI-percentile cohort group and asthma outcomes. RESULTS. Underweight asthmatics were rare (2.5%) relative to obese asthmatics but appeared to have the greatest impairment in forced vital capacity and had the greatest controller treatment burden. Obese asthmatic children made up 26.2% of our cohort and were more likely to have severe disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.85) and airflow obstruction (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.59) compared to normal weight asthmatics. Obese asthmatics were not at greater risk for exacerbation (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.64-3.11) or high treatment burden (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.83-1.28). CONCLUSIONS. Obesity is more common than underweight status among children with asthma. Both underweight and obese children with asthma have worse lung function and asthma-related outcomes compared to similar normal weight children, though the phenotypic characteristics of underweight and obese asthmatics differed considerably.Journal of Asthma 04/2012; 49(5):456-63. DOI:10.3109/02770903.2012.677895 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthma risk is unknown. Commonly cited potential etiologies include airway smooth muscle dysfunction from thoracic restriction, obesity-related circulating inflammation priming the lung, and obesity-related comorbidities mediating asthma symptom development. Each of these theories does not fit precisely with all of the data that have accumulated over the last decade. In this review, I will explore other possible causes including: (1) dietary characteristics common in Westernized countries that might lead to both obesity and asthma; (2) reductions in physical activity; and (3) genetic alterations that increase the propensity to both obesity and asthma together. Next, I will review the current data on how obesity affects common characteristics of asthma such as airway inflammation, lung function, risk of exacerbation, atopy, and response to treatment. Obesity in children with asthma appears to be associated with greater airflow obstruction and a mildly diminished response to inhaled corticosteroids. Little objective evidence in children suggests that obesity significantly heightens the risk of exacerbation or worsens disease stability in children. Lastly, I will discuss the current literature that suggests that obese children with asthma generally should receive the same guidelines-based management as lean children. However, interventions that encourage daily physical activity, weight-loss, normalization of nutrient levels, and monitoring of common obesity-related sequelae should be considered by healthcare providers managing obese children with difficult-to-control asthma.06/2012; 25(2):64-75. DOI:10.1089/ped.2011.0137
Article: Innate immune activation in obesity.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases.Molecular Aspects of Medicine 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2012.10.002 · 10.30 Impact Factor