Beta-lactam antibiotics prevent Salmonella-mediated bovine encephalopathy regardless of the β-lactam resistance status of the bacteria.
ABSTRACT This study assessed the capacity of β-lactam antibiotics to prevent salmonella-mediated encephalopathy in calves given the putative neuroprotective effects of these drugs of increasing glutamate export from the brain. Both ampicillin and ceftiofur prevented the development of encephalopathy despite resistance of the inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Saint-Paul isolate to both drugs. A glutamate receptor antagonist also prevented this salmonella-mediated encephalopathy. Glutamate exporters were hyper-expressed in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics while a glutamate export inhibitor obviated the effects of these antibiotics, demonstrating a neuroprotective effect through glutamate export from the brain. The findings indicate that β-lactam antibiotics remain an important treatment option for this atypical form of bovine salmonellosis.
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ABSTRACT: This review considers available evidence that some antibiotics have ancillary neuroprotective effects. Notably, β-lactam antibiotics are believed to increase the expression of glutamate transporter GLT1, potentially relieving the neurological excitotoxicity that characterizes disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Minocycline has shown promise in reducing the severity of a number of neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, most likely by reducing apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory mediators in the brain. Rapamycin inhibits the activity of a serine/threonine protein kinase that has a role in the pathogenesis of numerous neurologic diseases. Herein we examine the unique neuroprotective aspects of these drugs originally developed as anti-infective agents.Neuropharmacology 06/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor