We sought to characterize factors and outcomes associated with postoperative acute kidney injury in infants undergoing cardiac surgery.
We retrospectively studied 430 infants (<90 days) who underwent heart surgery for congenital defects. With a pediatric modified version of the Acute Kidney Injury Network classification, we performed statistical analyses to detect factors and outcomes associated with postoperative acute kidney injury.
Postoperative acute kidney injury occurred in 225 patients (52%): 135 patients (31%) reached maximum acute kidney injury stage I, 59 (14%) reached stage II, and 31 (7%) reached stage III. On multivariable analysis, single-ventricle status (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.37; P = .02), cardiopulmonary bypass (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.47; P = .04), and higher reference serum creatinine (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-13.2; P = .0009) were associated with postoperative acute kidney injury. Thirty-two (7%) patients died in the hospital. Multivariable logistic regression showed that more severe acute kidney injury was associated with in-hospital mortality (maximum acute kidney injury stage II odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-15.2; P = .004; maximum acute kidney injury stage III odds ratio, 9.46; 95% confidence interval, 2.91-30.7; P = .0002) and longer mechanical ventilation and inotropic support. All acute kidney injury stages were associated with longer intensive care durations. Stage III acute kidney injury was associated with systemic ventricular dysfunction at hospital discharge.
Perioperative acute kidney injury is common in infant heart surgery and portends a poor clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to high rates of morbidity and independently increases mortality risk. Therapy for AKI is likely limited by the inability to reliably diagnose AKI in its early stages, and, importantly, small changes in serum creatinine may be associated with poor outcomes and severe AKI. Whereas AKI biomarker research seeks to identify more sensitive and timely indices of kidney dysfunction, AKI lacks physical signs and symptoms to trigger biomarker assessment in at-risk patients, limiting biomarker efficacy. Accurate models of AKI prediction are unavailable. Severity of illness (SOI) scoring systems and organ dysfunction scores (OD), which stratify patients by prediction of mortality risk, are AKI reactive, not predictive. Kidney-specific severity scores do not account for AKI progression, and stratification models of AKI severity are not predictive of AKI. Thus, there is a need for a kidney scoring system that can help predict the development of AKI. This review highlights the concept of renal angina, a combination of patient risk factors and subtle AKI, as a methodology to predict AKI progression. Fulfillment of renal angina criteria will improve the efficiency of AKI prediction by biomarkers, in turn expediting early therapy and assisting in creation of AKI-predictive scoring systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in critically ill children and adults. Neonates remain an understudied group, although previous evidence suggests that this association holds true for them as well.
Attention to the issue of neonatal AKI is increasing. New studies in very low-birthweight infants, infants with congenital heart disease who undergo cardiopulmonary bypass, those who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and infants with perinatal depression continue to demonstrate that AKI is common in neonates and associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Additional advances in the field of neonatal AKI include adaptation of modern, categorical AKI definitions, as well as further evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers (e.g., neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in this patient group.
AKI is an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in critically ill neonates. Our ability to improve outcomes for these patients depends on heightened awareness of this issue both at the bedside as well as in research, commitment to using standardized AKI definitions in order to pool and compare data more effectively and improvement in our diagnostic methods with better AKI biomarkers so that we can identify AKI and intervene much earlier in the disease course.
Current opinion in pediatrics 01/2012; 24(2):191-6. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32834f62d5 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AKI is an important public health issue. AKI is a common hospital complication associated with increased in-hospital and long-term mortality, extensive morbidity (including prolonged hospital length of stay), and an estimated annual cost of at least $10 billion in the United States. At present, no specific therapy has been developed to prevent AKI, hasten recovery of kidney function, or abrogate the deleterious systemic effects of AKI. However, recent progress includes establishing a consensus definition of AKI and discovery of novel biomarkers that may allow early detection of AKI. Furthermore, significant insights into the pathophysiology of AKI and its deleterious systemic effects have been gleaned from animal studies. Urgently needed are large, definitive randomized clinical trials testing interventions to prevent and/or treat AKI. This review summarizes and analyzes current ongoing clinical trials registered with clinicaltrials.gov that address prevention or management of AKI. The purpose of this review is to provide a resource for people interested in potential prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to patient care and investigators hoping to plan and execute the next round of randomized clinical trials. Finally, this review discusses research needs that are not addressed by the current clinical trials portfolio and suggests key areas for future research in AKI.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 7(5):861-73. DOI:10.2215/CJN.12191111 · 4.61 Impact Factor
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