MicroRNA-22 and microRNA-140 suppress NF-κB activity by regulating the expression of NF-κB coactivators.
ABSTRACT Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that regulates a set of genes that are critical to many biological phenomena, including liver tumorigenesis. To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate NF-κB activity in the liver, we screened 60 miRNAs expressed in hepatocytes for their ability to modulate NF-κB activity. We found that miRNA-22 and miRNA-140-3p significantly suppressed NF-κB activity by regulating the expression of nuclear receptor coactivator 1 (NCOA1) and nuclear receptor-interacting protein 1 (NRIP1), both of which are NF-κB coactivators. Our results provide new information about the roles of miRNAs in the regulation of NF-κB activity.
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ABSTRACT: The identification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens has stimulated extensive research efforts, which continue to the present, to assess potential health hazards resulting from contamination of the human food supply and to minimize exposure. The use of biomarkers that are mechanistically supported by toxicological studies will be important tools for identifying stages in the progression of development of the health effects of environmental agents. miRNAs are small non-coding mRNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. Also, they are molecular markers of cellular responses to various chemical agents. Growing evidence has demonstrated that environmental chemicals can induce changes in miRNA expression. miRNAs are good biomarkers because they are well defined, chemically uniform, restricted to a manageable number of species, and stable in cells and in the circulation. miRNAs have been used as serological markers of HCC and other tumors. The expression patterns of different miRNAs can distinguish among HCC-hepatitis viruses related, HCC cirrhosis-derivate, and HCC unrelated to either of them. The main objective of this review is to find unreported miRNAs in HCC related to other causes, so that they can be used as specific molecular biomarkers in populations exposed to aflatoxins and as early markers of exposure, damage/presence of HCC. Until today specific miRNAs as markers for aflatoxins-exposure and their reliability are currently lacking. Based on their elucidated mechanisms of action, potential miRNAs that could serve as possible markers of HCC by exposure to aflatoxins are miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-122, miR-148, miR-155, miR-192, miR-214, miR-221, miR-429, and miR-500. Future validation for all of these miRNAs will be needed to assess their prognostic significance and confirm their relationship with the induction of HCC due to aflatoxin exposure.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2014; 5:102. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As an important class of non-coding regulatory RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in a range of biological processes. These molecules serve as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and their regulatory activity has been implicated in disease pathophysiology and pharmacological traits. We sought to investigate the impact of miRNAs on cellular proliferation to gain insight into the molecular basis of complex traits that depend on cellular growth, including, most prominently, cancer. We examined the relationship between miRNA expression and intrinsic cellular growth (iGrowth) in the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. We found a substantial enrichment for miRNAs (53 miRNAs, FDR < 0.05) correlated with cellular proliferation in pooled CEU (Caucasian of northern and western European descent) and YRI (individuals from Ibadan, Nigeria) samples. Specifically, 119 miRNAs (59 %) were significantly correlated with iGrowth in YRI; of these miRNAs, 18 were correlated with iGrowth in CEU. To gain further insight into the effect of miRNAs on cellular proliferation in cancer, we showed that over-expression of miR-22, one of the top iGrowth-associated miRNAs, leads to growth inhibition in an ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3). Furthermore, over-expression of miR-22 down-regulates the expression of its target genes (MXI1 and SLC25A37) in this ovarian cancer cell line, highlighting an miRNA-mediated regulatory network potentially important for cellular proliferation. Importantly, our study identified miRNAs that can be used as molecular targets in cancer therapy.Human Genetics 03/2014; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at greater risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to identify virus-specific serum microRNA profiles associated with liver function and disease progression. Microarray analysis of serum microRNAs was performed using the Toray 3D array system in 22 healthy subjects, 42 HBV patients, and 30 HCV patients. Selected microRNAs were then validated by qRT-PCR in 186 HBV patients, 107 HCV patients, and 22 healthy subjects. Microarray analysis showed up-regulation of a number of microRNAs in serum of both HBV and HCV patients. In qRT-PCR analysis, miR-122, miR-99a, miR-125b, miR-720, miR-22, and miR-1275 were up-regulated both in HBV patients relative to healthy subjects, and all except miR-1275 were up-regulated in HBeAg-positive patients relative to HBeAg-negative patients. Specific microRNAs were independently associated with different aspects of HBV infection. MiR-122 was independently associated with HBV DNA level, whereas miR-125b was independently associated with levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg, and HBeAg. MiR-22 and miR-1275 were independently associated with serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Serum microRNA levels reflect differences in the etiology and stage of viral hepatitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.The Journal of infection. 11/2014;