Hb Lake Tapawingo [α46(CE4)Phe→Ser; HBA2:c.140T>C]: A New Unstable α Chain Hemoglobin Variant Associated with Low Systemic Arterial Saturation
ABSTRACT A new unstable α-globin variant was detected in a child with hypoxemia and anemia. The child's mother was found to carry the same mutation. The hemoglobin (Hb) variant co-eluted with Hb A(2) by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and appeared cathodal to Hb A and anodal to Hb F by isoelectric focusing. It represented less than 20% of the total Hb and was unstable by isopropanol testing. Gene sequencing identified a missense mutation on the α2 gene [HBA2:c.140T>C]. Oxygen dissociation and P(50) test results were normal.
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ABSTRACT: The distal histidine residue, His64(E7), and the proximal histidine residue, His93(F8), in myoglobin (Mb) are important for the function of the protein. For example, the increase in the association rate constant for CO binding at low pH has been suggested to be caused by the protonation of these histidine residues. In order to investigate the influence of protonation on the structure of myoglobin, we determined the crystal structures of sperm whale myoglobin to 2.0 A or better in different states of ligation (MbCO, deoxyMb and metMb) at pH values of 4, 5 and 6. The most dramatic change found at low pH is that His64 swings out of the distal pocket in the MbCO structure at pH 4, opening a direct channel from the solvent to the iron atom. This rotation seems to be facilitated by conformational changes in the CD corner. The benzyl side-chain of Phe46(CD4), which has been suggested to be a critical residue in controlling the rotation of His64, moves away from His64 at pH 4 in the deoxyMb structure, allowing more free rotation of His64. Arg45(CD3) is also important for the dynamics of myoglobin, since it influences the pK(a) of His64 and forms a hydrogen bond lattice that hinders the rotation of His64 at neutral pH. This hydrogen-bond lattice disappears at low pH. Although His64 rotates out of the distal pocket in the MbCO structure at pH 4, leaving more space for the CO ligand, the Fe-C-O angle refines to about 130 degrees, the same as those at pH 5 and 6. In the MbCO structure at pH 4, significant conformational changes appear in the EF corner. The peptide plane between Lys79(EF2) and Gly80(EF3) flips about 150 degrees. The occupancy of this conformation in the MbCO structures increases with decreases in pH. On the proximal side of the heme, the bond between the heme iron atom and N(epsilon) of His93 remains intact under the experimental conditions in the MbCO and deoxyMb structures, but appears elongated in the metMb structure at pH 4, representing either a weakened bond or the breakage of the bond in some fraction of the molecules in the crystal.Journal of Molecular Biology 04/1996; 256(4):762-74. DOI:10.1006/jmbi.1996.0123 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most frequent type of human population DNA variation. One of the main goals of SNP research is to understand the genetics of the human phenotype variation and especially the genetic basis of human complex diseases. Non-synonymous coding SNPs (nsSNPs) comprise a group of SNPs that, together with SNPs in regulatory regions, are believed to have the highest impact on phenotype. Here we present a World Wide Web server to predict the effect of an nsSNP on protein structure and function. The prediction method enabled analysis of the publicly available SNP database HGVbase, which gave rise to a dataset of nsSNPs with predicted functionality. The dataset was further used to compare the effect of various structural and functional characteristics of amino acid substitutions responsible for phenotypic display of nsSNPs. We also studied the dependence of selective pressure on the structural and functional properties of proteins. We found that in our dataset the selection pressure against deleterious SNPs depends on the molecular function of the protein, although it is insensitive to several other protein features considered. The strongest selective pressure was detected for proteins involved in transcription regulation.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2002; 30(17):3894-900. · 9.11 Impact Factor
- JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/2009; 301(21):2272. DOI:10.1001/jama.2009.790 · 30.39 Impact Factor