Complicated grief associated with hurricane Katrina. Depres Anxiety

Columbia University School of Social Work and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.41). 08/2011; 28(8):648-57. DOI: 10.1002/da.20865
Source: PubMed


Although losses are important consequences of disasters, few epidemiological studies of disasters have assessed complicated grief (CG) and none assessed CG associated with losses other than death of loved one.
Data come from the baseline survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group, a representative sample of 3,088 residents of the areas directly affected by Hurricane Katrina. A brief screen for CG was included containing four items consistent with the proposed DSM-V criteria for a diagnosis of bereavement-related adjustment disorder.
Fifty-eight and half percent of respondents reported a significant hurricane-related loss: Most-severe losses were 29.0% tangible, 9.5% interpersonal, 8.1% intangible, 4.2% work/financial, and 3.7% death of loved one. Twenty-six point one percent respondents with significant loss had possible CG and 7.0% moderate-to-severe CG. Death of loved one was associated with the highest conditional probability of moderate-to-severe CG (18.5%, compared to 1.1-10.5% conditional probabilities for other losses), but accounted for only 16.5% of moderate-to-severe CG due to its comparatively low prevalence. Most moderate-to-severe CG was due to tangible (52.9%) or interpersonal (24.0%) losses. Significant predictors of CG were mostly unique to either bereavement (racial-ethnic minority status, social support) or other losses (prehurricane history of psychopathology, social competence.).
Nonbereavement losses accounted for the vast majority of hurricane-related possible CG despite risk of CG being much higher in response to bereavement than to other losses. This result argues for expansion of research on CG beyond bereavement and alerts clinicians to the need to address postdisaster grief associated with a wide range of losses.

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Available from: Katie A Mclaughlin, Feb 06, 2015
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    • "). Females have usually been considered to be more vulnerable than males to CG (Ghaffari-Nejad et al., 2007; Neria et al., 2007). However, the present study did not find a significant effect of gender when other earthquake related or death related variables were considered, which is similar to a number of previous studies (Kristensen et al., 2010; Schaal et al., 2010; Shear, McLaughlin, et al., 2011). Such inconsistent findings may due to the different samples involved and the statistical method used (bi-variate regression vs. multivariate regression). "
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    ABSTRACT: Disasters usually involves massive casualties, yet few post-disaster studies explore the prevalence of complicated grief (CG) among survivors. Complicated grief is a distinct psychological disorder, and is associated with impaired physical and psychological functions. Given such gap in the literature and the significance of this topic, this study is hoped to offer more information of complicated grief among survivors who lost their loved ones in disaster. Adopting a large scale survey, the prevalence and risk factors of CG among bereaved survivors one year after the Sichuan earthquake in China were explored.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 175. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.003 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The disruption associated with bereavement can trigger various disorders, including not only PGD but also major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Empirically, PGD has been shown to be a distinctive syndrome apart from ordinary grief, major depression and other mood disorders, and PTSD and other anxiety or stress-related disorders (Barnes, Dickstein, Maguen, Neria, & Litz, 2012; Boelen & van den Bout, 2008; Bonanno et al., 2007; Prigerson et al., 1996; Shear, Simon, et al., 2011). For example, a factor analysis of symptoms in 150 widowed individuals , 6 months after their partners' deaths, found that PGD symptoms loaded poorly on depression and anxiety factors (Prigerson et al., 1996), a result that has been repeatedly replicated in studies of the bereaved (e.g., Boelen & van den Bout, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Normative bereavement reactions are contrasted with prolonged grief disorder (PGD). Diagnostic criteria for PGD are reviewed. PGD is distinguished from other problems occurring after loss, namely depression and PTSD. Assessment approaches are described. Recent clinical trials are reviewed, and recommendations for the psychotherapeutic treatment of PGD are developed. Consideration of medication referral is also recommended, especially in the case of co-occurring depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
    Professional Psychology Research and Practice 06/2014; 45(3):180. DOI:10.1037/a0036836 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complicated grief, which is often under-recognized and under-treated, can lead to substantial impairment in functioning. The Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) is a 5-item self-report or interview instrument for screening complicated grief. Although investigations with help-seeking samples suggest that the BGQ is valid and reliable, it has not been validated in a broader population. A questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected sample (n = 5000) residing in one of 4 areas of Japan. The BCQ was examined for responders who were bereaved more than 6 months and less than 10 years (n = 915). Non-specific psychological distress was assessed with the K6 screening scale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported a uni-dimensional factor structure and the invariance of parameters across gender and age. Cronbach's alpha was sufficiently high (alpha = .75) to confirm internal consistency. Average Variance Extracted (0.39) was higher than the shared covariance (0.14) between BGQ and K6, suggesting discriminant validity. The results of this study support the reliability and validity of the BGQ in the Japanese population. Future studies should examine predictive validity by using structured interviews or more detailed scales for complicated grief.
    PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31209. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031209 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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