Gender and disease features in Moroccan patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine differences in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) between men and women in terms of clinical characteristics, biological features, structural severity and quality of life (QoL). A total of 130 consecutive AS patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria were included. Sociodemographic data were collected. The activity of disease was assessed by the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and the functional disability by the Bath Ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI). Spinal mobility was measured using the occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion, Schober index and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiologic Index (BASRI) was used to evaluate structural damage. Fatigue was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the QoL was measured by using the generic instrument SF-36. Laboratory tests included the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the C-reactive protein (CRP). In our sample, there were 87 (66.9%) men and 43 (33.1%) women. Women had significantly lower educational levels but there were no differences in socioeconomic status, age at onset, diagnosis delay, disease duration or treatments. Also, women had higher clinical disease activity (morning stiffness and BASDAI score), higher number of tender joints, more severe enthesitis and higher scores of fatigue (for all p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, hip involvement was more prevalent in men and the impairment of spinal mobility was significantly worse compared to women (for all p ≤ 0.001). Men had worse radiographic damage and lower scores in physical and social domains of QoL, but there were no differences in functional impairment scores. In this study, we noticed that AS presents differently according to gender in our patients. More longitudinal studies seem to be necessary to identify gender-related parameters of disease, thing that may help in diagnosis and therapeutic management of our AS patients.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the interrelated effect of phenotypic expression [i.e., primary ankylosing spondylitis (1 degree AS) or disease secondary to psoriasis (Ps) AS or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)AS], age at onset, sex and inheritance of responsible genes in AS. Three studies were performed to evaluate 1949 subjects with AS. Subgroups of the patients were formed for each study depending on disease type (1 degree AS = 1695; Ps AS = 173; IBD AS = 81), nature of inheritance or age at onset of AS symptoms. These groups were further subdivided to assess the effect of sex. The sex ratio of the entire group was 2.6:1 in favor of men. However, IBD AS had an equal sex distribution as does IBD alone. By contrast, Ps, which has an equal sex ratio as a lone event or in association with arthritis, resulted in a male dominance of 4.1:1 when it occurred as Ps AS. Women with IBD AS had a significantly younger onset compared to women with 1 degree AS [mean onset 21.7 years (SD 6.65) vs mean onset 24.4 years (SD 9.79), respectively; p = 0.019]. A younger age at onset was found in women with familial disease [mean 22.2 years (SD 7.55)] compared with the mean onset of sporadic disease in women [24.5 years (SD 10.0); p = 0.0059]. There was a progressive fall in the sex ratio as the age at onset increased (p = 0.053). For example: M:F ratio of < 20 years old was 3:1 compared to 1.8:1 for those with an onset of > 40 years. Sex ratio and age at onset are influenced both by each other and such factors as disease type and familial versus sporadic occurrence. These data help provide a predictable pattern of disease in spondyloarthropathy.The Journal of Rheumatology 11/1993; 20(11):1900-4. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the clinical and radiographic features in men and women in the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Ankylosing Spondylitis cohort, a large well-defined cross-sectional study of patients with AS, in order to understand the influence of gender in determining the severity of ankylosing spondylitis. Extensive clinical assessments and spine radiographs were performed in 302 men and 100 women with AS of > or = 20 years duration. Radiographs were scored using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiographic Index Spine (BASRI-spine) score (range 2-12). Functional impairment was measured by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire for the Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S). Radiographic severity was worse among men. The unadjusted median BASRI-spine score for men was 10, compared with 6.5 for women (p<0.001). Functional disability, as measured by the BASFI and HAQ-S, was not different between men and women. However, after adjusting for radiographic spinal damage, women were found to report worse functioning than men at any given level of radiographic damage. Women had a slightly earlier age of disease onset; however, disease duration was identical in both groups. Women more frequently reported family histories of AS in first-degree relatives and were more likely to be treated with intra-articular steroids, sulphasalazine and prednisone. Among patients with longstanding AS, men have more severe radiographic changes; findings of treatment differences suggest that women may have more peripheral arthritis. At any given level of radiographic damage, self-reported functional limitations were worse for women.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2007; 66(5):633-8. · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the subjective health in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with the general population, and to explore the associations between health status and age, sex of the patients, and educational level in AS. Health status was assessed with a generic instrument (SF-36) in 314 patients with AS and in 2323 people from the general population. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, sex, and educational level. Standard difference scores (s-scores) were calculated to ensure the clinical meaningfulness of the norm based comparisons. Both men and women with AS reported significantly impaired health on all scales of the SF-36. Women reported significantly worse health on physical health domains. However, when calculating differences from the general population, numerically larger s-scores were found for men (except for physical role and vitality). The relative impact of AS seems to diminish with increasing age. In AS, better health was significantly associated with higher education across all scales. Deviations from the general population on the non-physical health aspects were especially pronounced in patients with low education. All key dimensions of health are affected by AS. The physical aspects seem to be most severely affected, but in the less educated group of patients, the disease impact on the mental health aspects was also considerable. Evaluation and management planning should take the complexity of AS into consideration. The focus on physical function should be maintained, and additional attention should be paid to the mental and social consequences of AS.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2005; 63(12):1605-10. · 9.11 Impact Factor