[Human retrovirus HTLV-1: descriptive and molecular epidemiology, origin, evolution, diagnosis and associated diseases].
ABSTRACT Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus discovered in 1980. It is estimated that around 10-20 million people are infected with HTLV-1 worldwide. However, HTLV-1 is not a ubiquitous virus. Indeed, HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly southern Japan, the Caribbean region, parts of South America and intertropical Africa, with foci in the Middle East and Australia. The origin of this puzzling geographical repartition is probably linked to a founder effect in certain human groups. In the high endemic areas, 0.5 to 50% of the people have antibodies against HTLV-1 antigens. HTLV-1 seroprevalence increases with age, especially in women. HTLV-1 has 3 modes of transmission: mother to child, mainly through prolonged breastfeeding (> 6 months); sexual, mainly but not exclusively occurring from male to female; and by blood products contaminated by infected lymphocytes. HTLV-1 is mainly the etiological agent of two very severe diseases: a malignant T CD4+ cell lymphoproliferation of very poor prognosis, named adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). HTLV-1 is also associated with rare anterior uveitis, infective dermatitis and myositis in some high HTLV-1 endemic areas. The repartition of the different molecular subtypes or genotypes is mainly linked to the geographical origin of the infected persons but not to the associated pathology. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability probably linked to viral amplification via clonal expansion of infected cells rather than by reverse transcription. This stability can be used as a molecular tool to gain better insights into the origin, evolution and modes of dissemination of HTLV-1 and infected populations. HTLV-1 originated in humans through interspecies transmission from STLV-1, a very closely related retrovirus, highly endemic in several populations of apes and Old World monkeys.
Article: New STLV-3 strains and a divergent SIVmus strain identified in non-human primate bushmeat in Gabon.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human retroviral infections such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) are the result of simian zoonotic transmissions through handling and butchering of Non-Human Primates (NHP) or by close contact with pet animals. Recent studies on retroviral infections in NHP bushmeat allowed for the identification of numerous Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV) and Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses (STLV) to which humans are exposed. Nevertheless, today, data on simian retroviruses at the primate/hunter interface remain scarce. We conducted a pilot study on 63 blood and/or tissues samples derived from NHP bushmeat seized by the competent authorities in different locations across the country. SIV and STLV were detected by antibodies to HIV and HTLV antigens, and PCRs were performed on samples with an HIV or/and HTLV-like or indeterminate profile. Fourteen percent of the samples cross-reacted with HIV antigens and 44% with HTLV antigens. We reported STLV-1 infections in five of the seven species tested. STLV-3 infections, including a new STLV-3 subtype, STLV-1 and -3 co-infections, and triple SIV, STLV-1, STLV-3 infections were observed in red-capped mangabeys (C.torquatus). We confirmed SIV infections by PCR and sequence analyses in mandrills, red-capped mangabeys and showed that mustached monkeys in Gabon are infected with a new SIV strain basal to the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that did not fall into the previously described SIVmus lineages reported from the corresponding species in Cameroon. The same monkey (sub)species can thus be carrier of, at least, three distinct SIVs. Overall, the minimal prevalence observed for both STLV and SIV natural infections were 26.9% and 11.1% respectively. Overall, these data, obtained from a restricted sampling, highlight the need for further studies on simian retroviruses in sub-Saharan Africa to better understand their evolutionary history and to document SIV strains to which humans are exposed. We also show that within one species, a high genetic diversity may exist for SIVs and STLVs and observe a high genetic diversity in the SIVgsn/mon/mus lineage, ancestor of HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor.Retrovirology 03/2012; 9(1):28. · 6.47 Impact Factor