[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although recent studies have suggested that blacks compared with whites have an increased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, it remains uncertain whether this is true despite adjustment for body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and when assessed by cardiac MRI in the general population. The Dallas Heart Study is a population-based study of Dallas County in which 1335 black and 858 white participants 30 to 67 years of age underwent detailed assessment including dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition and cardiac MRI. Left ventricular hypertrophy, whether defined by indexation to body surface area (P<0.001), fat-free mass (P=0.002), or height2.7 (P<0.001) was 2- to 3-fold more common in black versus white women. Similar results were seen when comparing black and white men (P<0.001 when left ventricular hypertrophy was indexed to body surface area or height2.7 and P=0.05 when indexed to fat-free mass). Ethnic disparities in left ventricular mass persisted in multivariable models despite adjustment for fat mass, fat-free mass, systolic blood pressure, age, gender, and measures of socioeconomic status. We conclude that blacks compared with whites have increased left ventricular mass and a 2- to 3-fold higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in the general population, as assessed by cardiac MRI. The ethnic differences in left ventricular mass are independent of differences in body composition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether baseline systolic blood pressure variability was a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular mortality or cardiac events during the Syst-Eur trial.
The Syst-Eur study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, powered to detect differences in stroke rate between participants on active antihypertensive treatment and placebo. Systolic blood pressure variability measurements were made on 744 participants at the start of the trial. Systolic blood pressure variability was calculated over three time frames: 24 h, daytime and night-time. The placebo and active treatment subgroups were analysed separately using an intention-to-treat principle, adjusting for confounding factors using a multiple Cox regression model.
An elderly hypertensive European population.
Stroke, cardiac events (fatal and non-fatal heart failure, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and sudden death) and cardiovascular mortality (death attributed to stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, sudden death, pulmonary embolus, peripheral vascular disease and aortic dissection).
The risk of stroke increased by 80% (95% confidence interval: 17-176%) for every 5 mmHg increase in night-time systolic blood pressure variability in the placebo group. Risk of cardiovascular mortality and cardiac events was not significantly altered. Daytime variability readings did not predict outcome. Antihypertensive treatment did not affect systolic blood pressure variability over the median 4.4-year follow-up.
In the placebo group, but not the active treatment group, increased night-time systolic blood pressure variability on admission to the Syst-Eur trial was an independent risk factor for stroke during the trial.
Journal of Hypertension 01/2004; 21(12):2251-7. · 3.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed the extent and distribution of the blood-pressure burden worldwide. The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of disease related to high blood pressure.
Worldwide burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (> or =115 mm Hg systolic) was estimated for groups according to age (> or =30 years), sex, and World Bank region in the year 2001. Population impact fractions were calculated with data for mean systolic blood pressure, burden of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and relative risk corrected for regression dilution bias.
Worldwide, 7.6 million premature deaths (about 13.5% of the global total) and 92 million DALYs (6.0% of the global total) were attributed to high blood pressure. About 54% of stroke and 47% of ischaemic heart disease worldwide were attributable to high blood pressure. About half this burden was in people with hypertension; the remainder was in those with lesser degrees of high blood pressure. Overall, about 80% of the attributable burden occurred in low-income and middle-income economies, and over half occurred in people aged 45-69 years.
Most of the disease burden caused by high blood pressure is borne by low-income and middle-income countries, by people in middle age, and by people with prehypertension. Prevention and treatment strategies restricted to individuals with hypertension will miss much blood-pressure-related disease.
The Lancet 05/2008; 371(9623):1513-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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