Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301, USA.
Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography (Impact Factor: 2.67). 08/2011; 67(Pt 8):671-7. DOI: 10.1107/S090744491101746X
Source: PubMed


The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

Download full-text


Available from: Jarrod B. French,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29-176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein-protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 12/2011; 67(Pt 12):1065-72. DOI:10.1107/S0907444911046300 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine via the C-8 oxidation pathway is unknown. The first step of this pathway, caffeine to trimethyluric acid (TMU), has been attributed to poorly characterized caffeine oxidases and a novel quinone-dependent caffeine dehydrogenase. Here, we report the detailed characterization of the second enzyme, a novel NADH-dependent trimethyluric acid monooxygenase (TmuM), a flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of TMU to 1,3,7-trimethyl-5-hydroxyisourate (TM-HIU). This product spontaneously decomposes to racemic 3,6,8-trimethylallantoin (TMA). TmuM prefers trimethyluric acids and, to a lesser extent, dimethyluric acids as substrates, but it exhibits no activity on uric acid. Homology models of TmuM against uric acid oxidase HpxO (which catalyzes uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate) reveal a much bigger and hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the larger substrates. Genes involved in the caffeine C-8 oxidation pathway are located in a 25.2-kb genomic DNA fragment of CBB1, including cdhABC (coding for caffeine dehydrogenase) and tmuM (coding for TmuM). Comparison of this gene cluster to the uric acid-metabolizing gene cluster and pathway of Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed two major open reading frames coding for the conversion of TM-HIU to S-(+)-trimethylallantoin [S-(+)-TMA]. The first one, designated tmuH, codes for a putative TM-HIU hydrolase, which catalyzes the conversion of TM-HIU to 3,6,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (TM-OHCU). The second one, designated tmuD, codes for a putative TM-OHCU decarboxylase which catalyzes the conversion of TM-OHCU to S-(+)-TMA. Based on a combination of enzymology and gene-analysis, a new degradative pathway for caffeine has been proposed via TMU, TM-HIU, TM-OHCU to S-(+)-TMA.
    Journal of bacteriology 05/2012; 194(15):3872-82. DOI:10.1128/JB.00597-12 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transthyretin-like proteins are a family of proteins that share remarkable structural similarities to transthyretin, that have been identified in a variety of taxa such as bacteria, fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite the enormous progress in the study of transthyretin-like protein, little is known about it in amphioxus, a model organism for insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrates. Here we identified a transthyretin-like protein gene in Branchiostoma japonicum, named Bjtlp, which possessed a TLP-HIUase (an enzyme hydrolyzing 5-hydroxyisourate) domain and a consensus C-terminal tetrapeptide Tyr-Arg-Gly-Ser that are both characteristics of all known transthyretin-like proteins. Phylogenetic and intron-exon structure analyses support that TTR likely arose from a vertebrate specific duplication after vertebrates diverged from invertebrate chordates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Bjtlp was expressed in a tissue-specific fashion, with the transcript levels being most abundant in the hepatic caecum and hind gut. Enzymatic activity assays demonstrated that recombinant BjTLP had the capacity to hydrolyze 5-hydroxyisourate. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that both Y156 and R93 residues were critical for 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase activity of recombinant BjTLP. Moreover, the single mutation, Y156T, at the active site of BjTLP caused approximately 97% loss of its enzymatic activity, and meanwhile gained the thyroxine binding activity. All these data together suggest that the single mutation Y156T is critical for converting BjTLP to a new transport protein capable of distributing thyroxine.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 12/2012; 164(3). DOI:10.1016/j.cbpb.2012.12.003 · 1.55 Impact Factor
Show more