A Call to Arms: The Imperative for Antimicrobial Stewardship
ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis. The prevalence of drug-resistant organisms, such as the emerging NAP1 strain of Clostridium difficile, now highly resistant to fluoroquinolones, Acinetobacter species, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing organisms, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is increasing nationwide. The sources of antimicrobial resistance are manifold, but there is a well-documented causal relationship between antimicrobial use and misuse and the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. As the development of new antimicrobial agents is on the decline, the medical community, across all specialties and in conjunction with public health services, must develop and implement programs and strategies designed to preserve the integrity and effectiveness of the existing antimicrobial armamentarium. Such strategies are collectively known as antimicrobial stewardship programs and have the potential to minimize the emergence of resistant pathogens.
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ABSTRACT: Rapid urine tests for infection (urinalysis, dipstick) have low up-front costs. However, many false positives occur, with important downstream consequences, including unnecessary antibiotics. We studied indications, collection technique, and results of urinalyses in acute care. This research was a prospective observational study of a convenience sample of emergency department (ED) patients who had urinalysis performed between June 1, 2012 and February 15, 2013 at an urban teaching hospital. Analyses were conducted via t tests, χ(2) tests, and multivariable logistic regression. Of 195 cases included in the study, the median age was 56 and 70% of participants were female. There were specific symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 74 cases (38%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-45%), nonspecific symptoms or signs in 83 cases (43%; 95% CI, 36%-50%), and no symptoms or signs of UTI in 38 cases (19%; 95% CI, 14%-25%). The median age was 51 (specific symptoms), 58 (nonspecific symptoms), and 61 (no symptoms), respectively (P = .005). Of 137 patients who produced the specimen without assistance, 78 (57%; 95% CI, 48%-65%) received no instructions on urine collection. Correct midstream clean-catch technique was used in 8 of 137 cases (6%). Presence of symptoms or signs was not associated with a new antibiotic prescription, but positive urinalysis (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.7-14) and positive urine culture (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12) were. Of 36 patients receiving antibiotics, 10 (28%; 95% CI, 13%-43%) had no symptoms or nonspecific symptoms. In this sample at an urban teaching hospital ED, urine testing was not driven by symptoms. Improving practice may lower costs, improve efficiency of care, decrease unnecessary data that can distract providers and impair patient safety, decrease misdiagnosis, and decrease unnecessary antibiotics.03/2014; 1(1):ofu019. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu019
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ABSTRACT: Background. Minocycline is an "old-drug" with Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of infection due to Acinetobacter species. The purpose of this study is to describe an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program's evaluation of minocycline for the treatment of patients with multidrug resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) infections. Methods. This study evaluated hospitalized adult patients (September 2010 through March 2013) who received minocycline intravenously (IV) for a MDR-AB infection. Clinical and microbiological outcomes were analyzed. Secondary outcomes included infection-related mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS), infection-related LOS, intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, mechanical ventilation days, and 30-day readmission. Results. A total of 55 patients received minocycline. Median age was 56 (23-85) years, 65% were male with an APACHE II score of 21 (4-41). Clinical success was achieved in 40/55 (73%) patients treated with minocycline monotherapy (n = 3) or in combination with a second active agent (n = 52). Overall 43 (78%) patients demonstrated documented or presumed microbiologic eradication. Infection-related mortality was 25%. Hospital LOS was 31 (5-132) and infection-related LOS was 16 (2-43) days. Forty-seven (85%) patients were admitted to the ICU for a LOS of 18 (2-78) days. Thirty-nine (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation for 6 (2-29) days. One patient had a 30-day readmission. Conclusions. The response rate to minocycline monotherapy or in combination for the treatment of MDR-AB infections is encouraging as therapeutic options are limited. Prospective studies in patients with MDR-AB infections will help establish the role of minocycline alone or in combination with other antimicrobials.Clinical Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 59 Suppl 6:S381-7. DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu593 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies in the 1970s and 1980s reported that bacterial lysates (BL) had a prophylactic effect on recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). However, controlled clinical study procedures have evolved substantially since then. We performed a trial using updated methods to evaluate the efficacy of Lantigen B (R), a chemical BL This double blind, placebo controlled, multi-center clinical trial had the primary objective of assessing the capacity of Lantigen B to significantly reduce the total number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. Secondary aims were the RRTI duration, the frequency and the severity of the acute episodes, the use of drugs and the number of missed workdays. In the subgroup of allergic patients with RRTI, the number of allergic episodes (AE) and the use of anti-allergic drugs were also evaluated. One hundred and sixty patients, 79 allocated to the treated group (TG) and 81 to the placebo group (PG), were enrolled; 30 were lost during the study and 120 (79 females and 38 males) were evaluated. The PG had 1.43 episodes in the 8-months of follow-up while the TG had 0.86 episodes (p = 0.036). A similar result was observed in the allergic patients (1.80 and 0.86 episodes for the PG and the TG, respectively, p = 0.047). The use of antibiotics was reduced (mean 1.24 and 2.83 days of treatment for the TG and the PG). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the estimated risk of needing antibiotics and NSAIDs was reduced by 52.1 and 30.6%, respectively. With regard to the number of AE, no significant difference was observed between the two groups, but bronchodilators, antihistamines and local corticosteroids were reduced by 25.7%, 56.2% and 41.6%, respectively, in the TG. Lantigen B significantly reduced the number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. This finding suggests a first line use of this drug for the prophylaxis of infectious episodes in these patients. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2 Pt B):185-93. DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2014.10.026 · 2.37 Impact Factor