Toward the discovery of effective polycyclic inhibitors of alpha-synuclein amyloid assembly.
ABSTRACT The fibrillation of amyloidogenic proteins is a critical step in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. There is major interest in the therapeutic intervention on such aberrant aggregation phenomena, and the utilization of polyaromatic scaffolds has lately received considerable attention. In this regard, the molecular and structural basis of the anti-amyloidogenicity of polyaromatic compounds, required to evolve this molecular scaffold toward therapeutic drugs, is not known in detail. We present here biophysical and biochemical studies that have enabled us to characterize the interaction of metal-substituted, tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (PcTS) with α-synuclein (AS), the major protein component of amyloid-like deposits in Parkinson disease. The inhibitory activity of the assayed compounds on AS amyloid fibril formation decreases in the order PcTS[Ni(II)] ~ PcTS > PcTS[Zn(II)] > PcTS[Al(III)] ≈ 0. Using NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies we demonstrated conclusively that the differences in binding capacity and anti-amyloid activity of phthalocyanines on AS are attributed to their relative ability to self-stack through π-π interactions, modulated by the nature of the metal ion bound at the molecule. Low order stacked aggregates of phthalocyanines were identified as the active amyloid inhibitory species, whose effects are mediated by residue specific interactions. Such sequence-specific anti-amyloid behavior of self-stacked phthalocyanines contrasts strongly with promiscuous amyloid inhibitors with self-association capabilities that act via nonspecific sequestration of AS molecules. The new findings reported here constitute an important contribution for future drug discovery efforts targeting amyloid formation.
SourceAvailable from: Viktor Chernii[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The activity of five hafnium phthalocyanines containing out-of-plane ligands as inhibitors of reaction of insulin fibril formation is studied and correlation between their inhibitory properties and tendency to selfassociation is discussed. Methods. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Results. For the complexes with weak proneness to self-association PcHfDbm2, PcHfPyr2, and PcHfBtfa2 the values of inhibitory activity were estimated as 60–73 %. For phthalocyanines with the pronounced tendency to self-association PcHfPiromelit and PcHfCl2 the noticeably higher inhibitory activity values (about 95 %) were shown. In the presence of native or fibrilar insulin the destruction of self-associates of metal complex occurs in buffer pH 7.9, Besides upon the conditions of insulin fibrillization reaction (0.1 M HCl) phthalocyanines exist predominantly as monomers. Conclusions. The phthalocyanines with out-of-plane ligands with higher tendency to self-association have shown higher inhibitory activity in the insulin fibril formation comparing with the poorly aggregated metal complexes. At the same time low-order self-associates are not involved directly in th] mechanism of inhibition of insulin fibrillization and the phthalocyanines bind with protein in monomeric form. Tendency of phthalocyanines to self-association in aqueous media seems to be an «indicator» of their proneness to stack with protein aromatic amino-acids and thus of anti-fibrilogenic properties.Biopolymers and Cell 11/2013; 6(29):473–479. DOI:10.7124/bc.00083C
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid aggregation of α-synuclein (AS) has been linked to the pathological effects associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Cu(II) binds specifically at the N-terminus of AS and triggers its aggregation. Site-specific Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of AS has been proposed as a plausible mechanism for metal-enhanced AS amyloid formation. In this study, Cu(I) binding to AS was probed by NMR spectroscopy, in combination with synthetic peptide models, site-directed mutagenesis, and C-terminal-truncated protein variants. Our results demonstrate that both Met residues in the motif (1)MDVFM(5) constitute key structural determinants for the high-affinity binding of Cu(I) to the N-terminal region of AS. The replacement of one Met residue by Ile causes a dramatic decrease in the binding affinity for Cu(I), whereas the removal of both Met residues results in a complete lack of binding. Moreover, these Met residues can be oxidized rapidly after air exposure of the AS-Cu(I) complex, whereas Met-116 and Met-127 in the C-terminal region remain unaffected. Met-1 displays higher susceptibility to oxidative damage compared to Met-5 because it is directly involved in both Cu(II) and Cu(I) coordination, resulting in closer exposure to the reactive oxygen species that may be generated by the redox cycling of copper. Our findings support a mechanism where the interaction of AS with copper ions leads to site-specific metal-catalyzed oxidation in the protein under physiologically relevant conditions. In light of recent biological findings, these results support a role for AS-copper interactions in neurodegeneration in PD.Inorganic Chemistry 04/2014; 53(9). DOI:10.1021/ic4031377 · 4.79 Impact Factor
Chemical Reviews 06/2014; 114(13). DOI:10.1021/cr400695p · 45.66 Impact Factor