Toward the Discovery of Effective Polycyclic Inhibitors of -Synuclein Amyloid Assembly
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, S2002LRK Rosario, Argentina.Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 07/2011; 286(37):32036-44. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.242958
The fibrillation of amyloidogenic proteins is a critical step in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. There is major interest in the therapeutic intervention on such aberrant aggregation phenomena, and the utilization of polyaromatic scaffolds has lately received considerable attention. In this regard, the molecular and structural basis of the anti-amyloidogenicity of polyaromatic compounds, required to evolve this molecular scaffold toward therapeutic drugs, is not known in detail. We present here biophysical and biochemical studies that have enabled us to characterize the interaction of metal-substituted, tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (PcTS) with α-synuclein (AS), the major protein component of amyloid-like deposits in Parkinson disease. The inhibitory activity of the assayed compounds on AS amyloid fibril formation decreases in the order PcTS[Ni(II)] ~ PcTS > PcTS[Zn(II)] > PcTS[Al(III)] ≈ 0. Using NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies we demonstrated conclusively that the differences in binding capacity and anti-amyloid activity of phthalocyanines on AS are attributed to their relative ability to self-stack through π-π interactions, modulated by the nature of the metal ion bound at the molecule. Low order stacked aggregates of phthalocyanines were identified as the active amyloid inhibitory species, whose effects are mediated by residue specific interactions. Such sequence-specific anti-amyloid behavior of self-stacked phthalocyanines contrasts strongly with promiscuous amyloid inhibitors with self-association capabilities that act via nonspecific sequestration of AS molecules. The new findings reported here constitute an important contribution for future drug discovery efforts targeting amyloid formation.
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ABSTRACT: The link between many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and the aberrant folding and aggregation of proteins has prompted a comprehensive search for small organic molecules that have the potential to inhibit such processes. Although many compounds have been reported to affect the formation of amyloid fibrils and/or other types of protein aggregates, the mechanisms by which they act are not well understood. A large number of compounds appear to act in a nonspecific way affecting several different amyloidogenic proteins. We describe here a detailed study of the mechanism of action of one representative compound, lacmoid, in the context of the inhibition of the aggregation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) associated with Alzheimer's disease. We show that lacmoid binds Aβ(1-40) in a surfactant-like manner and counteracts the formation of all types of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) aggregates. On the basis of these and previous findings, we are able to rationalize the molecular mechanisms of action of nonspecific modulators of protein self-assembly in terms of hydrophobic attraction and the conformational preferences of the polypeptide.Biochemistry 12/2011; 51(1):126-37. DOI:10.1021/bi201745g · 3.02 Impact Factor
Article: Inhibition of Amyloid Formation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyloid is aggregated protein in the form of insoluble fibrils. Amyloid deposition in human tissue-amyloidosis-is associated with a number of diseases including all common dementias and type II diabetes. Considerable progress has been made to understand the mechanisms leading to amyloid formation. It is, however, not yet clear by which mechanisms amyloid and protein aggregates formed on the path to amyloid are cytotoxic. Strategies to prevent protein aggregation and amyloid formation are nevertheless, in many cases, promising and even successful. This review covers research on intervention of amyloidosis and highlights several examples of how inhibition of protein aggregation and amyloid formation has been achieved in practice. For instance, rational design can provide drugs that stabilize a native folded state of a protein, protein engineering can provide new binding proteins that sequester monomeric peptides from aggregation, small molecules and peptides can be designed to block aggregation or direct it into non-cytotoxic paths, and monoclonal antibodies have been developed for therapies towards neurodegenerative diseases based on inhibition of amyloid formation and clearance.Journal of Molecular Biology 01/2012; 421(4-5):441-65. DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2011.12.062 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unveiling interactions between labeling molecules and amyloid fibrils is essential to develop new detection methods for studying amyloid structures under various conditions. This review endeavours to reflect the progress in studying interactions between molecular inhibitors and amyloid peptides using a series of experimental approaches, such as X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning probe microscopy, and electron microscopy. The revealed binding mechanisms of anti-amyloid drugs and target proteins could benefit the rational design of drugs for prevention or treatment of amyloidal diseases.Nanoscale 03/2012; 4(6):1895-909. DOI:10.1039/c2nr11508e · 7.39 Impact Factor
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