Efficacy and Survival Analysis of I-131 Therapy for Bone Metastases from Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
ABSTRACT Our objective was to investigate the clinical efficacy of (131)I therapy for bone metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and prognostic factors as well as to assess patient survival and variables influencing survival.
One hundred six DTC patients with bone metastases treated with (131)I were retrospectively analyzed. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated based on the change in serum thyroglobulin (Tg), the palliation of bone pain, and the anatomical imaging changes in bone lesions. The overall survival rates were estimated using the life-table method.
After (131)I therapy, a significant decrease in serum Tg was seen in 37 cases (34.9%), and serum Tg remained stable in 56 patients (52.8%). Among the 61 patients with painful bone metastases, 39 patients obtained a significant relief of bone pain, and the effective rate was 63.9%. The majority of DTC patients (76.4%) exhibited no obvious anatomical imaging changes in metastatic bone lesions after (131)I therapy. Only histopathological type and whether combined with nonosseous distant metastases had statistically significant impacts on changes in serum Tg (P = 0.009 and 0.023), and age over 45 yr and papillary thyroid carcinoma had favorable response on changes in anatomical imaging (P = 0.027 and 0.014). The 5- and 10-yr survival rates were 86.5 and 57.9%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the presence of solitary bone metastases, only bone metastases, and (131)I therapy with previous bone surgery were independent factors associated with a better prognosis (P = 0.024, 0.009, and 0.031).
(131)I therapy is a feasible and effective treatment for DTC bone metastases. A better prognosis can be accomplished in patients who had a single metastatic lesion, only bone metastasis, or underwent bone surgery before (131)I therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Fabian Pitoia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Distant metastasis is an infrequent event in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and it occurs approximately in 10 % of cases. Bone is the second metastatic site in patients with DTC. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to describe the diagnosis and treatment of bone metastases (BMs) in patients followed up in ten different hospitals from Argentina. Diagnosis of BMs was made when: a) BM was confirmed by biopsy, b) a structural bone lesion was found following 131I uptake associated with elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) or c) a structural bone lesion was demonstrated by 18FDG uptake on PET/CT, also associated with high levels of serum Tg. Demographical, clinical, pathological and outcome data were obtained from hospital charts. We included 47 patients: 55 % were women, with a median age of 55 years old. Histology of DTC was as follows: 55 % had papillary thyroid cancer, 32 % had follicular thyroid cancer and 13 % had other variants. Diagnosis of BMs were synchronous in 47 % of patients (at the same time as DTC diagnosis) and metachronous in 53 %, occurring within a mean period of 72 months after initial diagnosis. In 64 % of patients, BMs were symptomatic: pain was referred in 70 % of these cases. In 68 % of cases, there were multiple sites of BMs, with the spine being the most frequent localization (36 %). In 68 % of patients, other distant metastases were observed, mainly in the lungs. Stimulated Tg levels were known in 38 patients at diagnosis: > 100 ng/ml in 87 % and <100ng/ml in 13 %. Serum calcium level was normal in all subjects in whom it was measured (n = 41). In 9 (29 %) of the 31 patients studied, serum bone turnover markers were elevated. At least one modality of treatment was prescribed in 96 % of patients with BMs. Radioiodine was indicated in 78 % of cases, bisphophonates were prescribed in 64 % of patients, while surgery was performed in 53 %. In 55 % of cases, external beam radiotherapy was also indicated and 23 % of individuals received other therapeutic approaches. Median follow-up was 24 months (range 1-228 months). The survival rate at the end of follow-up was 41 %. One patient (3 %) was considered to have no evidence of disease, 28 patients (59 %) died as a consequence of the DTC. The cause of death was known in 27 cases and it was related to BMs in only 8 patients (30 %). In conclusion, BMs were mainly observed in patients >45 years old, with similar gender distribution. BMs were multiple and had mainly an axial skeletal localization, causing high morbidity in most patients. Although bone turnover markers were elevated in one third of cases, no patient had hypercalcemia. Multiple modalities of treatment were used in the majority of cases, which indicates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach.Revista argentina de endocrinología y metabolismo 07/2014; 51(51):51-58.
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ABSTRACT: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 12/2014; 15(12):1081-7. DOI:10.1631/jzus.B1400124 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer are on the increase worldwide and the treatment options for progressive, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients are currently limited. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals, which are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of DTC. In this study, we reported our experience with the off-label use of sorafenib in Chinese cancer patients. A total of 8 patients (7 with papillary and 1 with follicular thyroid cancer) were recruited in this study. The partial response (PR) rate was 50.0% and 5 of the 8 patients (62.5%) achieved a durable response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 40.1 and 55.0 weeks, respectively. Lung metastases were more sensitive to sorafenib compared to lymph nodes. The tumor marker response was not in accordance with the radiological response, although patients with tumor marker complete response (CR) exhibited a longer PFS and OS compared to those without a CR. Common adverse events (AEs) included palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, hypertension, diarrhea, weight loss and alopecia. Grade 4 AEs comprised hypocalcemia (1 patient) and elevated amylase levels (1 patient). A dose reduction was required in 62.5% of the patients. In conclusion, sorafenib exhibited a clinically relevant antitumor activity in patients with progressive metastatic RAI-refractory DTC, although the majority of the patients required a dose reduction due to intolerable toxicity.Molecular and Clinical Oncology 01/2014; 2(1):87-92. DOI:10.3892/mco.2013.199