Substituting White Rice with Brown Rice for 16 Weeks Does Not Substantially Affect Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Chinese Men and Women with Diabetes or a High Risk for Diabetes

Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/2011; 141(9):1685-90. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.142224
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher consumption of white rice (WR) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is unclear whether substituting brown rice (BR) for WR can improve metabolic risk factors. A total of 202 middle-aged adults with diabetes or a high risk for diabetes were randomly assigned to a WR (n = 101) or BR group (n = 101) and consumed the rice ad libitum for 16 wk. Metabolic risk markers, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and serum lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Over the course of the intervention, no between-group differences were found for any markers except the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which decreased more in the WR group compared to the BR group (P = 0.02). However, this effect was observed only among participants with diabetes (n = 47). The reversion rate of reduced serum HDL cholesterol was marginally higher in the BR group (14.9%) than in the WR group (6.9%) (P = 0.07). Among participants with diabetes, a greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure was observed in the BR group compared to the WR group (P = 0.02). Our study suggests that incorporating BR into the daily diet for 16 wk did not substantially improve metabolic risk factors. Further studies with larger sample sizes, longer durations of follow-up, and different varieties of rice are needed to carefully examine the role of BR in the prevention and management of diabetes.

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Available from: Zhijie (Michael) Yu, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Brown rice (BR) is the unrefined whole grain contains various and important nutrient in bran layer that is located between white center and outer bran.[9] Removing bran layer results in losing potential health benefits of rice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice with various beneficial compounds such as vitamins, magnesium and other minerals, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids, γ-oryzanol and γ-aminobutyric acid. In the present study, we compared the effects of white rice (WR) and BR on inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female. In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, 40 overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) >25) women were randomly allocated to group 1 (n = 20): Treatment with BR diet and group 2 (n = 20): Treatment with WR diet for 6 weeks (first intervention period). Two participants in group 2 dropped out during this period. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 weeks (second intervention period) and three subjects in group 2 did not follow this period and eliminated, finally this study was completed with 35 subjects (group 1 = 20 and group 2 = 15). Each one was instructed to consume 150 g cooked WR or BR daily in each intervention period. Cardiovascular risk factors including BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hs-CRP as an inflammatory marker, were measured 4 times (in study week 0, 6, 8, 14). BR diet in comparison with WR diet could significantly reduce weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, Diastole blood pressure and hs-CRP. No significant differences between the two diets were found regarding lipid profiles and FBG. The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.
    International journal of preventive medicine 04/2014; 5(4):478-88.
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    • "The white rice is often preferred by consumers for its sensory properties and stability during storage (Gunaratne, Bentota, Cai, Collado, & Corke, 2011). However, white rice is greatly deprived of the B vitamins, dietary fibre, magnesium, trace elements, and phytochemicals that are present in the brown rice (Zhang et al., 2011). Brown rice also has a higher antioxidant level than white rice, containing about three times the quantity of polyphenolics, fourteen times the carotenoids, and six times the atocopherol (Choi, Jeong, & Lee, 2007). "
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    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 09/2013; 53(1):170–175. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2012.12.004 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To summarise evidence on the association between white rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and to quantify the potential dose-response relation. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Searches of Medline and Embase databases for articles published up to January 2012 using keywords that included both rice intake and diabetes; further searches of references of included original studies. Included studies were prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for type 2 diabetes by rice intake levels. Relative risks were pooled using a random effects model; dose-response relations were evaluated using data from all rice intake categories in each study. Four articles were identified that included seven distinct prospective cohort analyses in Asian and Western populations for this study. A total of 13,284 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained among 352,384 participants with follow-up periods ranging from 4 to 22 years. Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations had much higher white rice consumption levels than did Western populations (average intake levels were three to four servings/day versus one to two servings/week). The pooled relative risk was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 2.01) comparing the highest with the lowest category of white rice intake in Asian populations, whereas the corresponding relative risk was 1.12 (0.94 to 1.33) in Western populations (P for interaction=0.038). In the total population, the dose-response meta-analysis indicated that for each serving per day increment of white rice intake, the relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.11 (1.08 to 1.14) (P for linear trend<0.001). Higher consumption of white rice is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations.
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