Article

Substituting White Rice with Brown Rice for 16 Weeks Does Not Substantially Affect Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Chinese Men and Women with Diabetes or a High Risk for Diabetes

Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 09/2011; 141(9):1685-90. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.142224
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher consumption of white rice (WR) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is unclear whether substituting brown rice (BR) for WR can improve metabolic risk factors. A total of 202 middle-aged adults with diabetes or a high risk for diabetes were randomly assigned to a WR (n = 101) or BR group (n = 101) and consumed the rice ad libitum for 16 wk. Metabolic risk markers, including BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and serum lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Over the course of the intervention, no between-group differences were found for any markers except the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which decreased more in the WR group compared to the BR group (P = 0.02). However, this effect was observed only among participants with diabetes (n = 47). The reversion rate of reduced serum HDL cholesterol was marginally higher in the BR group (14.9%) than in the WR group (6.9%) (P = 0.07). Among participants with diabetes, a greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure was observed in the BR group compared to the WR group (P = 0.02). Our study suggests that incorporating BR into the daily diet for 16 wk did not substantially improve metabolic risk factors. Further studies with larger sample sizes, longer durations of follow-up, and different varieties of rice are needed to carefully examine the role of BR in the prevention and management of diabetes.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Zhijie (Michael) Yu, Jun 21, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
101 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice with various beneficial compounds such as vitamins, magnesium and other minerals, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids, γ-oryzanol and γ-aminobutyric acid. In the present study, we compared the effects of white rice (WR) and BR on inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female. In a randomized cross-over clinical trial, 40 overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) >25) women were randomly allocated to group 1 (n = 20): Treatment with BR diet and group 2 (n = 20): Treatment with WR diet for 6 weeks (first intervention period). Two participants in group 2 dropped out during this period. After a 2-week washout period, individuals were switched to the alternate diet for an additional 6 weeks (second intervention period) and three subjects in group 2 did not follow this period and eliminated, finally this study was completed with 35 subjects (group 1 = 20 and group 2 = 15). Each one was instructed to consume 150 g cooked WR or BR daily in each intervention period. Cardiovascular risk factors including BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hs-CRP as an inflammatory marker, were measured 4 times (in study week 0, 6, 8, 14). BR diet in comparison with WR diet could significantly reduce weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, Diastole blood pressure and hs-CRP. No significant differences between the two diets were found regarding lipid profiles and FBG. The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.
    International journal of preventive medicine 04/2014; 5(4):478-88.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes in China has increased substantially over recent decades, with more than 100 million people estimated to be affected by the disease presently. During this period there has been an increase in the rates of obesity and a reduction in physical activity. Many of the changes in lifestyle and diet are a result of increased economic development and urbanisation. In addition to an increasingly westernised diet, the traditional Chinese diet also plays a part, with the quantity and quality of rice intake linked to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Familial factors including inherited genetic variants are important, although differences in the genetic architecture suggest a different combination of genetic variants could be most relevant in Chinese when compared with Europeans. Recent advances have also emphasised the role of early life factors in the epidemic of diabetes and non-communicable diseases: maternal undernutrition, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes are all linked to increased risk of diabetes in offspring. A mismatch between developmentally programmed biology and the modern environment is relevant for countries like China where there has been rapid economic transformation. Multisectoral efforts to address the risks will be needed at different stages throughout the lifecourse to reduce the burden of diabetes.
    09/2014; 2(12). DOI:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70145-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the term "whole grain" is well defined, there has been no universal standard of what constitutes a "whole-grain food," creating challenges for researchers, the food industry, regulatory authorities, and consumers around the world. As part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Technical Advisory Committee issued a call to action to develop definitions for whole-grain foods that could be universally accepted and applied to dietary recommendations and planning. The Committee's call to action, and the lack of a global whole-grain food definition, was the impetus for the Whole Grain Roundtable held 3-5 December 2012 in Chicago, Illinois. The objective was to develop a whole-grain food definition that is consistent with the quartet of needs of science, food product formulation, consumer behavior, and label education. The roundtable's expert panel represented a broad range of expertise from the United States and Europe, including epidemiology and dietary intervention researchers, consumer educators, government policy makers, and food and nutrition scientists from academia and the grain food industry. Taking into account the totality, quality, and consistency of available scientific evidence, the expert panel recommended that 8 g of whole grain/30 g serving (27 g/100 g), without a fiber requirement, be considered a minimum content of whole grains that is nutritionally meaningful and that a food providing at least 8 g of whole grains/30-g serving be defined as a whole-grain food. Having an established whole-grain food definition will encourage manufacturers to produce foods with meaningful amounts of whole grain, allow consistent product labeling and messaging, and empower consumers to readily identify whole-grain foods and achieve whole-grain dietary recommendations.
    Advances in Nutrition 03/2014; 5(2):164-76. DOI:10.3945/an.113.005223 · 4.90 Impact Factor

Similar Publications