Occluding the mannose moieties on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 with griffithsin improves the antibody responses to both proteins in mice.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.
AIDS research and human retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.46). 07/2011; 28(2):206-14. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2011.0101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the influence of mannosylated glycans on the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env proteins, we immunized mice with monomeric gp120 in the presence and absence of the mannose-binding protein, griffithsin (GRFT). For comparison, other groups of mice received the nonglycosylated HIV-1 Gag protein, with and without GRFT. Coimmunization with GRFT increased the anti-gp120 IgG reactivity significantly, but had no effect on the anti-Gag response. We also investigated the IgG response to GRFT and found that gp120, but not Gag, enhanced its immunogenicity. For both proteins, IgG1 antibodies dominated the IgG response, with IgG2b as the next most prevalent subclass. We conclude that gp120-GRFT complexes are more immunogenic than the free proteins, for both components, and that occluding the mannose moieties on monomeric gp120 can improve the humoral immune response to this protein.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) can prevent virus acquisition, but several Env properties limit its ability to induce an antibody response that is of sufficient quantity and quality. The immunogenicity of Env can be increased by fusion to co-stimulatory molecules and here we describe novel soluble Env trimers with embedded interleukin-4 (IL-4) or interleukin-21 (IL-21) domains, designed to activate B cells that recognize Env. In particular, the chimeric EnvIL-21 molecule activated B cells efficiently and induced the differentiation of antibody secreting plasmablast-like cells. We studied whether we could increase the activity of the embedded IL-21 by designing a chimeric IL-21/IL-4 (ChimIL-21/4) molecule and by introducing amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding domain of IL-21 that were predicted to enhance its binding. In addition, we incorporated IL-21 into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of IL-21 did not impair Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not impair IL-21 activity. These studies should guide the further design of chimeric proteins and EnvIL-21 may prove useful in improving antibody responses against HIV-1.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67309. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067309 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The selection of an expression platform for recombinant biopharmaceuticals is often centered upon suitable product titers and critical quality attributes, including post-translational modifications. Although notable differences between microbial, yeast, plant, and mammalian host systems exist, recent advances have greatly mitigated any inherent liabilities of yeasts. Yeast expression platforms are important to both the supply of marketed biopharmaceuticals and the pipelines of novel therapeutics. In this review, recent advances in yeast-based expression of biopharmaceuticals will be discussed. The advantages of using glycoengineered yeast as a production host and in the discovery space will be illustrated. These advancements, in turn, are transforming yeast platforms from simple production systems to key technological assets in the discovery and selection of biopharmaceutical lead candidates.
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology 12/2014; 30:120–127. DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2014.06.007 · 8.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to increase the immunogenicity of vaccines because they can improve the immune response and/or direct it into a desired direction. As an alternative to codelivering Ags and cytokines separately, they can be fused into a composite protein, with the advantage that both moieties act on the same immune cells. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike, located on the outside of virus particles and the only relevant protein for the induction of neutralizing Abs, is poorly immunogenic. The induction of anti-Env Abs can be improved by coupling Env proteins to costimulatory molecules such as a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric molecules containing uncleaved Env gp140 fused to the species-matched cytokines IL-21 or GM-CSF in rabbits and mice. Each cytokine was either fused to the C terminus of Env or embedded within Env at the position of the variable loops 1 and 2. The cytokine components of the chimeric Env-GM-CSF and Env-IL-21 molecules were functional in vitro, but none of the Env-cytokine fusion proteins resulted in improved Ab responses in vivo. Both the Env-GM-CSF and the Env-IL-21 molecules induced strong anticytokine Ab responses in both test species. These autoimmune responses were independent of the location of the cytokine in the chimeric Env molecules in that they were induced by cytokines inserted within the variable loops 1 and 2 of Env or fused to its C terminus. The induction of undesired autoimmune responses should be considered when using cytokines as costimulatory molecules in fusion proteins.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; 192(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1303401 · 5.36 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from