Comparison of Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Sandwich ELISA for Determination of Keratan Sulfate in Plasma and Urine

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Biomarker insights 06/2011; 6:69-78. DOI: 10.4137/BMI.S7451
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) leads to skeletal dysplasia through excessive storage of chondroitin-6-sulfate and keratan sulfate (KS). KS is synthesized mainly in cartilage and released into circulation, making it a critical biomarker for MPS IVA to evaluate clinical course and effectiveness of therapies. Therefore, an accurate and sensitive method is required to measure KS levels.
Using sandwich ELISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assays, we measured KS levels in blood and urine from MPS IVA patients and healthy controls to evaluate comparability of results. Blood (patients, n = 110; controls, n = 364) and urine (patients, n = 103; controls, n = 326) specimens were obtained.
Plasma and urine KS measurements in patients were age-dependent and higher than age-matched controls. We observed a moderate correlation (r = 0.666; P < 0.001) between urine KS measurements and a weak correlation (r = 0.333; P = 0.002) between plasma KS measurements by ELISA and LC/MS/MS methods in patients. No correlation was found between plasma KS measurements in controls. The difference between KS measurements assayed by LC/MS/MS and ELISA was greater in controls than in patients. A moderate correlation between blood and urine KS measurements in the same individual was observed.
These findings indicate that both methods to measure blood and urine KS are suitable for diagnosis, monitoring therapies, and longitudinal assessment of the disease course in MPS IVA, but the LC/MS/MS method measures over 10 times more KS present in body fluids.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Morquio A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, one of 50 lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and is caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Deficiency of this enzyme causes specific glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation: keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S). The majority of KS is produced in the cartilage, therefore, the undegraded substrates accumulate mainly in cartilage and in its extracelluar matrix (ECM), causing direct leads to direct impact on cartilage and bone development and leading to the resultant systemic skeletal spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Chondrogenesis ,the earliest phase of skeletal formation that leads to cartilage and bone formation is controlled by cellular interactions with the ECM, growth and differentiation factors and other molecules that affect signaling pathways and transcription factors in a temporal-spatial manner. In Morquio A patients, in early childhood or even at birth, the cartilage is disrupted presumably as a result of abnormal chondrogenesis and/ or endochondral ossification. The unique clinical features are characterized by a marked short stature, odontoid hypoplasia, protrusion of the chest, kyphoscoliosis, platyspondyly, coxa valga, abnormal gait, and laxity of joints. In spite of many descriptions of the unique clinical manifestations, diagnosis delay still occurs. The pathogenesis of systemic skeletal dysplasia in Morquio A syndrome remains an enigmatic challenge. In this review article, screening, diagnosis, pathogenesis and current and future therapies of Morquio A are discussed.
    Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER 09/2014; 12 Suppl 1:141-51.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzymes essential for catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Accumulation of undegraded GAGs results in dysfunction of multiple organs, resulting in distinct clinical manifestations. A range of methods have been developed to measure specific GAGs in various human samples to investigate diagnosis, prognosis, pathogenesis, GAG interaction with other molecules, and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. We established ELISA, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and an automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) to identify epitopes (ELISA) or disaccharides (MS/MS) derived from different GAGs (dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and/or chondroitin sulfate). These methods have a high sensitivity and specificity in GAG analysis, applicable to the analysis of blood, urine, tissues, and cells. ELISA is feasible, sensitive, and reproducible with the standard equipment. HT-MS/MS yields higher throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods while the HT-MS/MS system does not have a chromatographic step and cannot distinguish GAGs with identical molecular weights, leading to a limitation of measurements for some specific GAGs. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of these methods for measuring GAG levels in biological specimens. We also describe an unexpected secondary elevation of keratan sulfate in patients with MPS that is an indirect consequence of disruption of catabolism of other GAGs.
    09/2014; 4(3):655-79. DOI:10.3390/metabo4030655
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Keratan sulfate (KS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) type consisted of a sulfated poly-N-acetyl lactosamine chain. Besides acting as a constitutive molecule of the extracellular matrices, this GAG also plays a role as a hydrating and signaling agent in cornea and cartilage tissues. Inasmuch, KS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical industry. This review will cover the major achievements described in the literature of 2010-2014 concerning this GAG. Discussion about KS' roles in physiopathological conditions, as target or therapeutic molecule in diseases, methods of analysis and detection as well as KS-related enzymes, metabolism and developmental biology is properly provided.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 08/2014; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.08.029 · 3.10 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014