Physical activity pattern and activity energy expenditure in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant Swedish women.
ABSTRACT Energy costs of pregnancy approximate 320 MJ in well-nourished women, but whether or not these costs may be partly covered by modifications in activity behavior is incompletely known. In healthy Swedish women: (1) to evaluate the potential of the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity (IDEEA) to assess energy expenditure during free-living conditions, (2) to assess activity pattern, walking pace and energy metabolism in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls, and (3) to assess the effect on energy expenditure caused by changes in physical activity induced by pregnancy.
Activity pattern was assessed using the IDEEA in 18 women in gestational week 32 and in 21 non-pregnant women. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was assessed using IDEEA, as well as using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry.
AEE using the IDEEA was correlated with reference estimates in both groups (r=0.4-0.5; P<0.05). Reference AEE was 0.9 MJ/24 h lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 92 min/24 h more on sitting, lying, reclining and sleeping (P=0.020), 73 min/24 h less on standing (P=0.037) and 21 min/24 h less on walking and using stairs (P=0.049), and walked at a slower pace (1.1 ± 0.1 m/s versus 1.2±0.1 m/s; P=0.014) than did non-pregnant controls. The selection of less demanding activities and slower walking pace decreased energy costs by 720 kJ/24 h and 80 kJ/24 h, respectively.
Healthy moderately active Swedish women compensated for the increased energy costs of pregnancy by 0.9 MJ/24 h. The compensation was mainly achieved by selecting less demanding activities.
- SourceAvailable from: Hanna Henriksson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Activity energy expenditure (AEE) during free-living conditions can be assessed using devices based on different principles. To make proper comparisons of different devices' capacities to assess AEE, they should be evaluated in the same population. Thus, in the present study we evaluated, in the same group of subjects, the ability of three devices to assess AEE in groups and individuals during free-living conditions. In twenty women, AEE was assessed using RT3 (three-axial accelerometry) (AEERT3), Actiheart (a combination of heart rate and accelerometry) (AEEActi) and IDEEA (a multi-accelerometer system) (AEEIDEEA). Reference AEE (AEEref) was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. Average AEEActi was 5760 kJ per 24 h and not significantly different from AEEref (5020 kJ per 24 h). On average, AEERT3 and AEEIDEEA were 2010 and 1750 kJ per 24 h lower than AEEref, respectively (P < 0·001). The limits of agreement (± 2 sd) were 2940 (Actiheart), 1820 (RT3) and 2650 (IDEEA) kJ per 24 h. The variance for AEERT3 was lower than for AEEActi (P = 0·006). The RT3 classified 60 % of the women in the correct activity category while the corresponding value for IDEEA and Actiheart was 30 %. In conclusion, the Actiheart may be useful for groups and the RT3 for individuals while the IDEEA requires further development. The results are likely to be relevant for a large proportion of Western women of reproductive age and demonstrate that the procedure selected to assess physical activity can greatly influence the possibilities to uncover important aspects regarding interactions between physical activity, diet and health.Journal of Nutritional Science. 01/2013; 2.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) = 17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) = 0.78, p = 0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64) = 8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705) = 7.38, p = 0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86204. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To describe activity patterns in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and evaluate the impact of increased structured physical activity on glucose control.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose levels (continuous glucose monitoring) were measured in 10 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (age 33.2 years, gestation 20 weeks, BMI 27.9 kg/m(2), diabetes duration 16.6 years, HbA(1c) 6.5% [48 mmol/mol], insulin pump duration 2.4 years) during a day at home (free-living) and during a 24-h visit incorporating controlled diet and structured physical activity with light intensity activity (three 20-min self-paced walks) and moderate intensity activity (two 50-min sessions of brisk treadmill walking). PAEE was evaluated through individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing.RESULTSFree-living PAEE was comparable to that under controlled study conditions (3.8 and 5.1 kcal/kg/day, P = 0.241), with women achieving near to the recommended 30 min of moderate physical activity (median 27 min [interquartile range 14-68]). During the free-living period, more time was spent in light activity (10.3 vs. 7.2 h, P = 0.005), with less sedentary time (13.0 vs. 14.9 h, P = 0.047) and less moderate activity (27 vs. 121 min, P = 0.022). The free-living 24-h mean glucose levels by continuous glucose monitoring were significantly higher (7.7 vs. 6.0 mmol/L, P = 0.028). The effect of controlled diet and exercise persisted overnight, with significantly less time spent hyperglycemic (19% vs. 0%, P = 0.028) and less glucose variability (glucose SD 1.3 vs. 0.7 mmol/L, P = 0.022).CONCLUSIONSA controlled diet and structured physical activity program may assist women with type 1 diabetes in achieving optimal glucose control during pregnancy.Diabetes care 02/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor