Possible Use of CA-125 Level Normalization After the Third Chemotherapy Cycle in Deciding on Chemotherapy Regimen in Patients With Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Cancer antigen (CA)-125 is a biomarker widely used in the monitoring of response to chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We hypothesize that normalization of the CA-125 after the third cycle of chemotherapy is an independent prognostic indicator of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
A retrospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of advanced-stage (III-IV) EOC who were treated with cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy from January 1999 to June 2009 was conducted. Patient demographics and the prognostic significance of CA-125 level above the discrimination value of 35 U/mL were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
A total of 124 women met the study inclusion criteria. The median PFS for all patients with a CA-125 level of less than 35 U/mL (n = 72) after the third chemotherapy cycle was 18 months versus that of the patients with a CA-125 level of 35 U/mL or greater (n = 52) was 9 months (P < 0.0001). The median OS was 42 and 22 months, respectively (P < 0.0001). Optimal microscopically debulked patients with normalization of CA-125 after the third cycle did significantly better than those who did not normalize (PFS, 48 vs 8.3 months; OS, 59 vs 23.8 months; P < 0.0001). When patients with macroscopic disease and normalization of CA-125 after the third cycle were compared with those with CA-125 of 35 U/mL or greater, a significant difference in OS was seen between the 2 groups (47 vs 29 months, respectively; P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, only 2 variables were associated with poor prognosis: (1) the failure of CA-125 level to normalize after the third chemotherapy cycle (hazard ratio, 2.5; confidence interval, 1.3-4.6) and (2) the grade of the tumor (hazard ratio, 7.7; confidence interval, 1.6-37.6).
Although hypothesis generating at this point, normalization of CA-125 level after the third chemotherapy cycle is an independent predictor of survival for patients with advanced EOC regardless of debulking status. We would propose future trials that consider switching regimens in patients who do not normalize their CA-125 after the third cycle to see if such a switch can improve PFS and OS.
Available from: Ashok Sharma
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers play critical roles in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic outcome and recurrence of cancer. Previous biomarker research on ovarian cancer (OC) has mostly focused on the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers. The primary purpose of this study is to identify serum biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic outcomes of ovarian cancer.
Forty serum proteins were analyzed in 70 serum samples from healthy controls (HC) and 101 serum samples from serous OC patients at three different disease phases: post diagnosis (PD), remission (RM) and recurrence (RC). The utility of serum proteins as OC biomarkers was evaluated using a variety of statistical methods including survival analysis.
Ten serum proteins (PDGF-AB/BB, PDGF-AA, CRP, sFas, CA125, SAA, sTNFRII, sIL-6R, IGFBP6 and MDC) have individually good area-under-the-curve (AUC) values (AUC = 0.69-0.86) and more than 10 three-marker combinations have excellent AUC values (0.91-0.93) in distinguishing active cancer samples (PD & RC) from HC. The mean serum protein levels for RM samples are usually intermediate between HC and OC patients with active cancer (PD & RC). Most importantly, five proteins (sICAM1, RANTES, sgp130, sTNFR-II and sVCAM1) measured at remission can classify, individually and in combination, serous OC patients into two subsets with significantly different overall survival (best HR = 17, p<10(-3)).
We identified five serum proteins which, when measured at remission, can accurately predict the overall survival of serous OC patients, suggesting that they may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic outcomes for ovarian cancer.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78393. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078393 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditional disease-free survival (DFS) does not reflect changes in prognosis over time. Conditional DFS accounts for elapsed time since achieving remission and may provide more relevant prognostic information for patients and clinicians. This study aimed to estimate conditional DFS among patients with ovarian cancer and to evaluate the impact of patient characteristics.
Patients were recruited as part of the Hormones and Ovarian Cancer Prediction case-control study and were included in the current study if they had achieved remission after a diagnosis of cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum (N = 404). Demographic and lifestyle information was collected at enrollment; disease, treatment, and outcome information was abstracted from medical records. DFS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Conditional DFS estimates were computed using cumulative DFS estimates.
Median DFS was 2.54 years (range, 0.03-9.96 years) and 3-year DFS was 48.2%. The probability of surviving an additional 3 years without recurrence, conditioned on having already survived 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after remission, was 63.8%, 80.5%, 90.4%, 97.0%, and 97.7%, respectively. Initial differences in 3-year DFS at time of remission between age, stage, histology, and grade groups decreased over time.
DFS estimates for patients with ovarian cancer improved dramatically over time, in particular among those with poorer initial prognoses. Conditional DFS is a more relevant measure of prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer who have already achieved a period of remission, and time elapsed since remission should be taken into account when making follow-up care decisions.
© 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2014; 32(36). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.55.1713 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an increasing need for the identification of novel biological markers and potential therapeutic targets in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Given the critical role of growth factors in the biology of EOC, we aimed in the present study to evaluate the intratumoral expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins and their clinical relevance in a cohort of 100 patients with EOC. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy after surgery. A comparative immunohistochemical study of normal ovarian and EOC tissues showed that both growth factors were expressed at higher levels in tumor samples. In our statistical analysis, while no association existed between the FGF expression status and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients, intratumoral VEGF was identified as a potential biomarker for the prediction of ascites formation. In addition, the expression status of VEGF appeared to independently predict overall survival and response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, a direct association was demonstrated between the pre-treatment VEGF expression and serum CA125 after three cycles of chemotherapy. In sum, we report for the first time to our knowledge the correlation between intratumoral VEGF and serum CA125 in EOC. Our data also shows the prognostic value of VEGF expression in EOC. These results suggest the potential value of intratumoral VEGF in patient stratification. Dual inhibition of VEGF and CA125 might bring about a better outcome for patients with EOC.
Oncotarget 06/2015; 6(29). DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4427 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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