Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor induces endothelium-independent relaxation of coronary artery smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT Estrogens can either relax or contract arteries via rapid, nongenomic mechanisms involving classic estrogen receptors (ER). In addition to ERα and ERβ, estrogen may also stimulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in nonvascular tissue; however, a potential role for GPER in coronary arteries is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how GPER activity influenced coronary artery reactivity. In vitro isometric force recordings were performed on endothelium-denuded porcine arteries. These studies were augmented by RT-PCR and single-cell patch-clamp experiments. RT-PCR and immunoblot studies confirmed expression of GPER mRNA and protein, respectively, in smooth muscle from either porcine or human coronary arteries. G-1, a selective GPER agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium-denuded porcine coronary arteries in vitro. This response was attenuated by G15, a GPER-selective antagonist, or by inhibiting large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels with iberiotoxin, but not by inhibiting NO signaling. Last, single-channel patch-clamp studies demonstrated that G-1 stimulates BK(Ca) channel activity in intact smooth muscle cells from either porcine or human coronary arteries but had no effect on channels isolated in excised membrane patches. In summary, GPER activation relaxes coronary artery smooth muscle by increasing potassium efflux via BK(Ca) channels and requires an intact cellular signaling mechanism. This novel action of estrogen-like compounds may help clarify some of the controversy surrounding the vascular effects of estrogens.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana Pérez Domínguez[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We found that the selective stimulation of the intracellular, transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), also known as GPR30, acutely lowers blood pressure after infusion in normotensive rats and dilates both rodent and human arterial blood vessels. Stimulation of GPER blocks vasoconstrictor-induced changes in intracellular calcium concentrations and vascular tone, as well as serum-stimulated cell proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells. Deletion of the GPER gene in mice abrogates vascular effects of GPER activation and is associated with visceral obesity. These findings suggest novel roles for GPER in protecting from cardiovascular disease and obesity.Circulation Research 02/2009; 104(3):288-91. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen is central to many physiological processes throughout the human body. We have previously shown that the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 (also known as GPER), in addition to classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ER and ER), activates cellular signaling pathways in response to estrogen. In order to distinguish between the actions of classical estrogen receptors and GPR30, we have previously characterized G-1 (1), a selective agonist of GPR30. To complement the pharmacological properties of G-1, we sought to identify an antagonist of GPR30 that displays similar selectivity against the classical estrogen receptors. Here we describe the identification and characterization of G15 (2), a G-1 analog that binds to GPR30 with high affinity and acts as an antagonist of estrogen signaling through GPR30. In vivo administration of G15 revealed that GPR30 contributes to both uterine and neurological responses initiated by estrogen. The identification of this antagonist will accelerate the evaluation of the roles of GPR30 in human physiology.Nature Chemical Biology 07/2009; 5(6):421-7. · 12.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine dilates the coronary, renal and other vascular beds; however, the signaling pathway underlying this effect is unclear. In this study the signal-transduction process mediating dopamine-induced relaxation of porcine coronary arteries was investigated in isolated vessels and single arterial myocytes. Dopamine-induced relaxation of arteries was mediated through the DA- receptor and involved K+ efflux, and subsequent patch-clamp studies demonstrated that either dopamine or fenoldopam, a selective DA-1 agonist, increased the opening probability of the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated K+ (BKCa) channel in coronary myocytes. Moreover, blockade of this channel by iberiotoxin prevented dopamine-induced coronary relaxation. Dopamine stimulation of BKCa channels was completely prevented by a DA-1-receptor antagonist, but was unaffected by propranolol. Furthermore, inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity prevented stimulation of BKCa channel activity, whereas chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), a membrane-permeable analog of cyclic AMP, mimicked the effects of dopamine. Interestingly, inhibiting the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) did not affect the response to dopamine, whereas dopamine-induced channel activity was completely blocked by inhibiting the activity of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). These findings demonstrate that activation of DA-1 receptors causes stimulation of BKCa channel activity by a mechanism involving cyclic AMP-dependent stimulation of PKG, but not PKA, and further suggest that this cross-reactivity mediates dopamine-induced coronary vasodilation.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 12/1999; 34(5):619-27. · 2.38 Impact Factor