Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) induces endothelium- independent relaxation of coronary artery smooth muscle

Michael E. DeBakey Institute-Division of Women's Health, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.79). 07/2011; 301(5):E882-8. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00037.2011
Source: PubMed


Estrogens can either relax or contract arteries via rapid, nongenomic mechanisms involving classic estrogen receptors (ER). In addition to ERα and ERβ, estrogen may also stimulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in nonvascular tissue; however, a potential role for GPER in coronary arteries is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how GPER activity influenced coronary artery reactivity. In vitro isometric force recordings were performed on endothelium-denuded porcine arteries. These studies were augmented by RT-PCR and single-cell patch-clamp experiments. RT-PCR and immunoblot studies confirmed expression of GPER mRNA and protein, respectively, in smooth muscle from either porcine or human coronary arteries. G-1, a selective GPER agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium-denuded porcine coronary arteries in vitro. This response was attenuated by G15, a GPER-selective antagonist, or by inhibiting large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels with iberiotoxin, but not by inhibiting NO signaling. Last, single-channel patch-clamp studies demonstrated that G-1 stimulates BK(Ca) channel activity in intact smooth muscle cells from either porcine or human coronary arteries but had no effect on channels isolated in excised membrane patches. In summary, GPER activation relaxes coronary artery smooth muscle by increasing potassium efflux via BK(Ca) channels and requires an intact cellular signaling mechanism. This novel action of estrogen-like compounds may help clarify some of the controversy surrounding the vascular effects of estrogens.

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    • "The association of BK Ca channels with, and their regulation by, GPCRs has been well established in other tissues. For example, M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit BK Ca currents in tracheal SMCs (Zhou et al., 2008), whereas the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 stimulates BK Ca activity in coronary SMCs (Yu et al., 2011). Here we discuss five GPCRs that have been linked to uterine function: oxytocin, prostaglandin F 2α , corticotropin-releasing hormone, nociceptin, and melatonin receptors. "
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